Saturday, August 31, 2019

Death of a Salesman Essay

‘Death of a Salesman’ tells us a lot about the ideology of the author, Arthur Miller. His main character Willy is a normal man who feels he is a failure because he doesn’t average ‘a hundred and seventy dollars a week’ which causes him to become suicidal. Miller is trying to tell the audience that ambitions and dreams can take over our lives and destroy them in the process. Biff says ‘I don’t know what I’m supposed to want’ as if there was one dream to fulfil otherwise you have failed. The pressure surrounding dreams is far too great and sometimes we have to come to terms with the fact they cannot be accomplished. Arthur Miller is also exploring the fact that success doesn’t only involve career, money and popularity. Happy has his ‘own apartment, a car and plenty of women’ but comes to realise that he still not satisfied. He tells Biff that ‘I’m lonely. ‘ Money may make you financially successful but it does not secure your happiness. Willy is only preoccupied with living up to his idol, Dave Singleman. Dave Singleman is a salesman who ‘drummed merchandise in thirty-one states’ and could just ‘pick up his phone and call the buyers, and without ever leaving his room, at the age of eighty-four, he made his living. ‘ This is Willy’s ultimate fantasy, to make his name known and to be able to work from home. Hundreds of salesman and buyers were at Dave Singleman’s funeral, Willy believes that this greatest sign of popularity and honour. Arthur Miller creates one of the most heart-wrenching scenes in the Requiem when no one shows up at Willy’s funeral other than his family and neighbour. Not only does ‘Death of a Salesman’ inform the audience about Arthur Miller’s opinions on success, failure and dreams, it tells them what he thinks of his own country. This play is set in America, Miller’s home country, in the 1940s. It is a vigorous attack on American values. He disapproves of the belief that money and public esteem are signs of excellence. Willy Loman is a victim of this system. This becomes evident when he does not believe that Bernard will not be successful because he is not ‘well-liked. ‘ The American Dream is the concept that through hard work and dedication, anyone can be successful. Through Willy’s character, Arthur Miller shows us that he disagrees with this belief. The theme of The American Dream runs through the entire play, Willy is a firm believer in it. At first, this concept seems to be inspirational and advantageous but it is the very thing that kills Willy. This play shows the audience that The American Dream encourages superficial prejudice against those who do not achieve it. This causes pressure and insecurity for those who are not ‘rich’ and ‘well-liked. ‘ It examines the cost of blind faith in the American Dream. Despite being written over fifty years ago, this play is still important and relevant today. The play is a tragedy and many people can empathize with Willy’s character. Willy is not superhuman, he is just a man. Moreover, The American Dream is still very much alive today. People flood over from all over the world to come to America to search for fame and fortune, only a few ever achieve it. In conclusion, Arthur Miller allows the audience to see the inside of Willy’s by Time-switches and expressing his ideology and beliefs on success, failure, dreams and America. ‘Death of a Salesman’ addresses the painful conflicts within one family, but it also tackles larger issues regarding American national values. A half century after it was written, this play remains a powerful drama. It is even more relevant today in a world where materialism is such a major problem. There is a part of everyone in the character Willy Loman. Written by Emily Kho – 1 – Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Arthur Miller section.

Friday, August 30, 2019

The types and benefits of Open distance learning

Open distance larning refers to instruction and preparation in which utilizing the learning resources, instead than go toing schoolroom Sessionss, is the cardinal characteristic of the learning experience. There are three types of unfastened distance scholars ( ODL ) : Face to face acquisition: Classroom Environment, Formal Classroom, Computer Laboratory, Science Laboratory, Number of Meetings, 5 or less meetings, 5 or more meetings, Teaching Schemes, Direct & A ; Indirect. Self managed acquisition: Specialy designed faculties with support from: – CDROM Courseware, Digital Library, Physical Library, Capable Matter Experts, Peers, Tutors. Online acquisition: Resources, Learning Objects ( iTutorials, iWeblets ) , Multimedia Courseware, PDF Documents, Microsoft Office Attachments, Digital Library, Discussions. Most of ODL are part-timers and have households. Learners will be confronting jobs in equilibrating their work and instruction because of that and is genuinely disputing for them. As debut I want to foreground about the job face by get downing on-line scholars. In the modern-day age is the ability to have an instruction 1000s of stat mis off from a schoolroom in a convenient and efficient mode. Majority of universities presents offer unfastened online larning for pupils all around the universe. Get downing on-line scholar ‘s categories might non be an ideal circumstance for every interested individual. What are the jobs faced by get downing on-line scholars really?2.0. Three chief job face by get downing on-line scholars:2.1. Lack of socialising with equals and working with your larning manner: –A traditional schoolroom state of affairs is non possible to get downing on-line scholars for acquisition. If a societal interaction were accomplishable with get downing on-line scholars, pupils might be unsure to run into with person whom they merely know from the Internet. This job with online larning would decidedly impede a kinaesthetic or haptic scholar, and if the plan does n't supply video interaction so an auditory scholar would besides non do as well.So by listening and discourse something or working with manipulatives, so get downing on-line scholars one think is non your best choice.As an coach, supervising pupil comprehension is of import otherwise pupils wo n't understand the lesson moves on and one or more pupils are left behind to seek and calculate out what they did n't catch up. Feeling behind while all others continue with the lesson will rapidly allow down their self-belief degree. Reflect on all of your options and judge what type of pupil you were in the yesteryear every bit good as what are the jobs faced by ODL in the last few old ages. Finally, you could detect an educational plan that hysterics your demands whether that is with a traditional manner instruction or an beginning online scholars instruction.2.2. Juggling life: –When asked what are the jobs faced by unfastened distance scholars, life and its ensuing complications seems to be the figure one response. Most enrolled pupils in unfastened distance acquisition are committed to their life in some other manner apart from school such as a household to care for, some facet which occupies the their clip, a mandatory full-time occupation to pay the measures. Except the pupils make a personal committedness to finish the class of survey, odds are life will happen a manner to deflect and rupture them off from carry throughing their end of go oning their instruction. Unlike traditional university pupil s who are ever in their acquisition group which supports them most of the clip, on-line scholars pupils are non. Online scholars pupil besides have a difficult clip in being independent and responsible to their ain ego. Most of the clip, no 1 would steer pupil larning procedure. Unfocused position of their acquisition ends besides will do the pupils act irresponsibly towards their acquisition. Beside that, they besides face jobs in acknowledging and get the hanging strengths and accomplishments. In on-line acquisition, engineering is the chief conduit which information and communicating flow. The pupils need to hold some basic authorship accomplishments and a go on-line appreciation of English linguistic communication. For this they must hold a computing machine with internet entree. Those looking to heighten their skill sets and capablenesss through online larning demand to fight with issues such as self-motivation, household committednesss, work life, clip direction, and other proficient activities. Balancing these issues with regular online categories, assignments, trials and tests can be ra ther disputing. Assignments and undertakings can be limited by feedback and appraisal by teachers. Developing relationships with real-world schoolmates and networking with other equals is besides restricted.2.3. No established modus operandis: –Merely like pupils in a traditional school environment, unfastened distance scholars must make a dedicated topographic point for analyzing and larning to take topographic point. Successful pupils assign to a clip to analyze and a topographic point to analyze. It is portion of set uping a modus operandi that keeps pupils stop uping in front when times get tough yet life has demands and pupils of unfastened distance larning tend to derive a false sense of freedom. Yes, you ‘re free to larn at place but the other committednesss of life are traveling on around you. Students who stop, bead, and larn do n't be given to retain as much information. Self-monitoring is non ever helpful particularly when cunctation sets in and one time the work starts stacking up there is less penchant to retrieve from that cunctation. Do non hold adequate clip, excessively many plants to be done and lazy are among other grounds given by this type of pupils in order to avoid analyzing for tests.3.0. Solutions to the stated jobs for get downing on-line scholars:3.1. Time direction: –To finish your surveies via a flexible agenda in an on-line format can be really advantageous as get downing on-line scholars. Many scholars who enroll in an on-line grade plan think that it is traveling to be easy to complete their coursework without a set category agenda to follow. Anyone who wants to win in an on-line grade plan should hold clip direction accomplishments. To do certain you devote a plenty sum of clip to your surveies, set aside specific period each hebdomad that you will give to your coursework. It ‘s besides of import to be after your f riends and household members for the fact that you will be puting aside certain times for surveies. If non they will evidently believe that you ‘re available to them because you are at place. Efficient clip direction is n't the lone challenge faced by pupils in on-line instruction plans but acquiring your agenda under control is one of the first things that every online scholar demands to make to fix to stand out in his or her categories.3.2. Introduce new classs: –Introduction of a nucleus class to cover the needed accomplishments is the most great manner to guarantee that pupils are both enthusiastic and suitably prepared for ODL. The scholars need to ease the debut of group work into an otherwise â€Å" traditional † grade model, fit group work into the semester system and to develop academic staff in their apprehension of group accomplishments and theory. Supremely, a short class for staff should be run on a regular footing and an introductory nucleus class for pupils in the first twelvemonth of the plan should be introduced. This solution enables any classs within the plan to use group acquisition, confident that the key demands and accomplishments will already be familiar to the pupils prior to the beginning of the class. Likewise, get downing on-line scholars will be cognizant that group work may organize portion of the standard acquisition procedure, and are likely to near such classs with far less nervousness than might otherwise be the instance.3.3. Skills required at the beginning of the class: –In this instance where ODL engagement in a group work of minimal two hebdomads at the start of the class should be devoted wholly to the nucleus advantages, benefits of group acquisition and the accomplishments required without any anterior formal preparation in group skills.It seems hard. However, readying of get downing on-line scholars in this manner is an indispensable demand for successful group work and someway assumes less importance when one steps out of the more usual talk, seminar and tutorial manner. Group facilitation, duties to other group members and effectual online communicating are amongst the accomplishments that should be stressed in these Sessionss. One of import accomplishment to larning online is larning to pull off your clip foremost. We have to do a hebdomadal survey agenda for the most effectual ways to maintain on top of your studying.A Make clip usefull for offline activities. Make note of these at the beginning of the class and program consequently for them to be a succesfull scholar. Follow the schemes below: ( GOAL SETTING STRATEGIES )S SpecificM MeasureableA AccomplishableR RealisticT Time-bound4.0. DecisionTaking a class or gaining a grade via online acquisition can be a worthwhile experience but requires some subject on your portion. Proper readying can take to a direct focal point on your classs. A coach ‘s counsel is important for the success of synergistic and brooding acquisition. The findings reveal that the teacher ‘s counsel reduced such jobs and that, to a certain extent, successful acquisition was achieved.A It is apparent that distance instruction pupils in the survey benefitted from this signifier of acquisition and possible to set about certain steps to minimise the jobs and to guarantee greater success in future efforts. Last but non least, squad instruction should be implemented with each teacher taking on certain function. So, when you sign up for online acquisition, do n't merely excited at the beginning but as the hebdomads advancement, motive can diminish .A When this occurs, remind yourself of the ground you enrolled in the first topographic point.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Strategic plan for LEGO Group Company Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Strategic plan for LEGO Group Company - Essay Example The company was started in the founder’s workshop where Ole Kirk Christiansen created toys made of wood in 1932, but the first famous plastic brick was developed in 1949. The name of the company was developed by Christiansen from a Danish term meaning â€Å"play well†, however, the company states that LEGO means â€Å"putting together† or â€Å"assembling† in Latin, but this translation is liberal. In 1947, the company obtained samples of interconnecting bricks manufactured by Kiddicraft through the manufacturer of injection molding equipment based in London that had an interest in the development of equipment sales in Denmark. Initially, Christiansen was skeptical but Kiddicraft convinced him to make the plastic bricks instead of the wooden toys he had been making. In 1949, the LEGO Group started making bricks that were similar to the manufactured by Kiddicraft while referring to them as â€Å"Automatic Binding Bricks†, using cellulose acetate whil e being developed in the same spirit of the wooden blocks which could be stacked on each other.Nonetheless, the plastic bricks have the ability to be interlocked with each other as they contain a number of round studs on the upper side and a hollow bottom that is rectangular. These blocks were able to stick to each other but not too tightly to make it difficult to be pulled apart. Using plastics to develop toys was not highly favored by retailers as well as consumers at the time when LEGO Group began manufacturing its toys.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

People management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

People management - Essay Example This paper aims at identifying the reasons of general employee dissatisfaction reflecting in high turnover rate, poor service, and downfall in profitability, decline in repeat business and other signs of detoriation in sports complex. Methodology The first and foremost task as a line manager of this sports complex is to identify all the problems areas. An analysis of the reasons of these problems will help us in actually finding the solution. This can be done through various methods which include observation, questionnaires to find out what employees dislike about company policies by ensuring anonymity, conducting open meetings, building trust among employees by giving value to their suggestions, conducting exit interview from leaving employees to develop sound understanding of deficiencies in the system and the source of dissatisfaction. Findings All the problems of sports complex were actually deep rooted in employee dissatisfaction. Diminishing profits, declining sales, customer c omplaints, high turnover, decline in repeat business all this were the result of ineffective and inefficient human resource policy and practices. A major restructuring and revitalization of HR policy was required to meet the current challenges. The problems identified were Lack of communication No synergy in team work Highly de motivated employees Authoritative management style No effort regarding building human capital relationship Inflexible policies rather than contingency approach Analysis of the Problem and Recommendations A deep analysis of the situation and the problem revealed certain shortcomings in the HR policies and practices. I will discuss in detail all of them one by one what is lacking and deficient and how it can be improved by strengthening certain practices in sport complex. Effective Communication HRM should realize the importance of communication skills and the development of interpersonal skills between the management and workforce. What we observe here at spor ts complex is a certain lack of communication. A good Hr manager needs to build a rapport with his staff so that they can communicate openly with each other. However a good manager should notice and keep track of all verbal and non verbal communication. According to Albert Mehrabian nonverbal communication is a complex communication phenomena which very subtly convey the feelings such as body language, facial expressions, hand and arm gestures, postures, positions and various arms and feet movement all communicate along with the verbal words. Sometimes there is dichotomy between verbal and nonverbal communication which subtly convey the true feelings of the person. 1(Albert Mehrabian, 2009) A good manager is a reader of all sorts of communication and does not ignore any. A manager should possess good interpersonal skills so that environment is friendly, pleasant and receptive. What I recommend here is effective open communication where both managers and workforce can freely interact with each and can openly discuss whatever problems they are facing, instead of opting out of the job or rude behavior with customers which shows lack of interest on the part of the workforce. Effective communication and conflict management is the first step towards building trust among employees. 2(Michael Fielding, 2006) Successful Team

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Importance of Economic Growth in Achieving Environmental Coursework

Importance of Economic Growth in Achieving Environmental Sustainability - Coursework Example This paper offers a comprehensive review of the modern application of the concept of sustainable development in real-world economy. Also, examples of successful integration of environment and economic policy are provided. Still, it remains difficult to exactly point how much growth is required to bring about sustainable development. There are certain ways through which the economic policy can be integrated with the environment. One of the important decisions to integrate the environmental and economic policy is to impose environmental taxes. Such taxes shall be charged on any kind of destructions to the environment performed for economic reasons Another aspect, which the nations may look into, is allowing tradable permits. Trade permits are a means of establishing caps or promoting direct investment in environmentally beneficial outcomes towards achieving environmental goals. Through the exercise of tradable permits, investment can be procured into environmental projects. By encouraging technological development the pollution of the environment can be kept in a check. By using advanced equipment for production, the industry can keep a check on the pollution through active means of production. Direct environmental regulation is the most common step, which the nations use to keep pollution in control. Laws on environmental standards and a limit on the green house gases have been the major environmental control acts done by the nations It is important to note that the eco-efficiency has to be cost effective and should be limited. , and is designed by the way a society produces and consumes its products. Ways to Integrate Environment and Economic Policy: There are certain ways through which the economic policy can be integrated with the environment. One of the important decisions to integrate the environmental and economic policy is to impose Environmental Taxes. Such taxes shall be charged on any kind of destructions to the environment performed for economic reasons. These taxes shall be levied on the polluters and the users of such products, thereby not only increasing the revenue of the Government which in turn will improve the economy of the nations, it shall also act as a deterrent for people to pollute the environment as the products will be extremely expensive to produce and consume. This will also provide a counter productive effect by incentivizing the environmental innovators who in turn will have to bear fewer costs for producing their goods.5 Another aspect, which the nations may look into, is allo wing Tradable Permits. â€Å"Trade permits are a means of establishing caps or promoting direct investment in environmentally beneficial outcomes towards achieving environmental goals.†6 Through the exercise of tradable permits, investment can be procured into environmental projects. In this system the Government sets a maximum limit upto which pollution can be emitted into the environment. The companies, which emit a higher amount of pollutant, can trade the cap with the companies emitting lower amount of pollutant, and therefore the entire system is balanced and it is hinging on the maximum cap of emission of pollutants.7 Therefore, each and every company will try to lower its emission so as to

Monday, August 26, 2019

STRATEGIC PLANNING AND CHANGE Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

STRATEGIC PLANNING AND CHANGE - Assignment Example consider conscious involvement of all employees and key stakeholders as well as the application of the right tools so as to realize positive responses. The management need to ask themselves a number of questions based on how they can make the change process motivating to employee, how they can achieve clear understanding of the process among the employees and how to extend the knowledge to the staff. In order to successfully realize the benefits expected from the change process, managers must embrace the four engagement tools or benchmarks namely learning, involvement, rewards and communication. Effective communication of the tenets of the change initiative offers guidelines and direction to the employees so that they are well informed of their roles in the process. When change is properly communicated, the employees will feel some sense of ownership and control during the process (Freytag and Hollensen, 2001). The inclusion of the learning process through proper training enables employees to gain confidence and realize how real and serious are the changes. The creation of a learning environment is of great importance to the change process owing to the fact that changes within organizations need new skills and attitudes towards their implementation. Training help in minimizing the anxieties associated with the change process as well as granting the employees sufficient time to adjust and progress to the point where threats linked to the change process are no longer felt. According to Fairbairn the learning theory proposes that employees are motivated to respond by physiological demands that are based on the competency, self-sufficiency and understanding. Competence occurs when people develop a feeling that they are very important in the realization of the components of a given change process (Dube, et. al, 2005). Full involvement of employees in the work process is another are that managers must focus on for in-depth realization of the change process

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Economic Statistics Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Economic Statistics - Research Paper Example The existence of autocorrelation in our estimation is determined using the Durbin Watson test and the Breusch Godfrey test to check for first order correlation. Autocorrelation however has its own remedies and one of the remedies involves time lagging variables also known as general least square method, this method involves replacement of the model with the serially correlated error term with a model with a serially independent error term. Estimation of the model one LGDPt = 1 + 2LXt + 3LFDIt + 4LDIt+5INF involves the use of the data for the period 1970 to 2002 regarding the UK economy, estimation of the above model using Eviews had the following results: From the results of the correlation of determination R squared which is equal to 0.99229 we can conclude that 99.22% of variations in LGDP are explained by the independent variables, this shows a very strong relationship between the dependent and the independent variables. From the results if we hold all other factors constant and the level of LX, LFDI, LDI and INF are equal to zero then the level of LGDP will be equal to 11.158 which is also our autonomous value, we can explain the coefficient of the log of exports by stating that if we hold all other factors constant and increase the level of LX by one unit then the level of LGDP will increase by 0.366704 units, also if we hold all other factors constant and increase the level of LFDI by one unit then the level of LGDP will decrease by 0.006544 units. If we also hold all the other factors constant and increase the level of LDI by one unit then the level of LGDP will increase by 0.265253 units, finally if we hold all factors constant and increase the level of INF by one unit then the level of LGDP will decline by 0.00131. Having explained the coefficients of the estimated model we can conclude that if we increase the level of exports and domestic investment then the level of gross domestic product will increase, on the other hand an increase in the level of inflation and foreign direct investment will reduce the level of gross domestic production. Statistical significance: Our estimated coefficients may be statistically significant of statistically insignificant, for this reason there is a need to undertake hypothesis test to determine their significance in the model, a two tail T test at 95% level of test showed the following results: 95% TEST LEVEL VARIABLE coefficient null hypothesis alternative hypothesis T calculated T critical reject or accept null C B1 B1=0 B10 14.3179 2.04841 REJECT INF B2 B2=0 B20 -1.459259 2.04841 ACCEPT LDI B3 B3=0 B30 5.183639 2.04841 REJECT LFDI B4 B4=0 B40 -1.010641 2.04841 ACCEPT LX B5 B5=0 B50 13.04894 2.04841 REJECT From the above test of hypothesis it is clear

Saturday, August 24, 2019

London Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

London - Essay Example However, temperatures below -20 degrees centigrade have been noted in the past one decade, but their accuracy is yet to be validated (Anderson, p. 27). The city has a cluster of activities, ranging from streets to places of entertainment. It is also a city with numerous economic activities since it is considered as a manufacturing center with a good industrial network. People working in the city engage in both official and casual activities. Examples of those who engage in official activities include teachers, lawyers, doctor and bankers. On the other hand, the casual workers include craftsmen, builders and wood choppers (Burling, p. 207). London has a rapidly growing population. The population has hit more than seven million over the past one decade. People are originating from all parts of the world to live in the city (Boulton, p. 105). They have come with different lifestyles and colorful festivals. That is why London is considered as a multicultural city since the Roman times. Currently, about a quarter of the city’s inhabitants are members of ethnic minorities. With the diverse culture of its inhabitants, London has a variety of dishes. These dishes include delicacies such as dosa deli, churros Garcia, grilling Greek and the orange buffalo (Lawley, p.

Can the U.S. Government Still Be Regarded as a Federal System of Essay

Can the U.S. Government Still Be Regarded as a Federal System of Government - Essay Example Across America’s history, federalism has been defined in different ways. Cooperative federalism implies that the two forms of government are to work in collaboration with one another. Dual federalism supposes that the two forms of government are working separate from one another. Creative federalism relates to a combined planning and decision making system amongst the two. Horizontal federalism relates to the interaction and shared programs amongst them while vertical federalism means the conventional systems of federal governance whereby the actions of the central government are considered to be supreme as interpreted by the constitution. Every state in the US is characterized with its own positions relative to legal authority and political importance. Although states are not considered sovereign entities they can assume power and take actions relative to the functions of other governmental set ups (McKAY, 2001). The US Constitution had established division of authority among st the state and federal governments that had initially put restraints on the federal government in areas of foreign policy, defense and the controls over currency and commerce amongst states. Over time, this bifurcation of authority has been diluted and currently the federal government enjoys extended authority relative to almost aspects impacting US citizens. However, despite such increase in federal authority, states in the US continue being very significant centers of governmental functioning. Over the years, there have been different policies enacted by different Presidents in regard to reducing the federal government’s powers and vice versa.... This essya stresses that federalism is understood as a governance system whereby the constitution partitions power amongst the state and central governments and both governments take direct actions relative to the people they rule, in terms of the prevailing laws. It is understood that both entities are supreme in the context of their respective spheres of authority. The central and state governments are required to give their consent in the event of proposals being made for changing the constitution. Very rarely does federalism appear in discussions and debates pertaining to modern public policies. A good feature of federalism is that it retains power, traditions and local dignity while permitting the central government to deal with common issues. This paper makes a conclusion that the founders of the Constitution displayed a great deal of loyalty towards their respective states and were not inclined to provide unlimited powers to the central government. While framing the Constitution, the founders created a document that greatly succeeded in bifurcating powers while creating a balance in favor of the nation as a whole. However, it is widely perceived that over the decades the US has diverted from what was intended by the founders of the Constitution because the original intent was not to provide the federal government with extensive authority over issues relative to law enforcement, housing and education

Friday, August 23, 2019

Report to the presentation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Report to the presentation - Essay Example From the two aspects, success is assured for your presentation (Tolley & Wood 2011). This paper, therefore, seeks to compare two group’s case studies for their presentations. For case study six presentations, the presentation is about the role of the government while case study seven, talks about Ethics and globalization. The paper seeks to compare case studies’ six and seven. For a well written report presentation, it is essential that the group members do a thorough research on the subject matter. The group members should, therefore, read lots of sources to gather information concerning the subject. The reason for this is because having the ability to present a subject area with confidence affects the audience directly. In turn, this gives the audience an impression that will capture their attention. For instance, for case study six, the topic the role of government is clear and readers can easily tell what the presentation is all about. Similarly, case study seven’s topic is also clear and easily communicates the information to its audience. For this reason, both groups have shown strength in explicitly making the subject matter of their presentations simple for the audience to have an idea of what is to be presented. Both case studies discuss ethical issues and leaves questions on h ow to solve the ethical issues. The aspect of researching for a simple and easily understandable subject is essential in capturing the audience’s attention. For both presentations, the members did a lot of research, and this could only be achieved through teamwork and a high level of cooperation (Tolley & Wood 2011). Teamwork and cooperation are vital components that ensure successful presentations, and this is portrayed in case studies one and seven. Another similarity between the case study six and seven is that they leave the reader with an open mind of making an ethical decision in solving the problem at hand. However, both case studies

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Understanding the Novel Housekeeping Essay Example for Free

Understanding the Novel Housekeeping Essay The novel entitled â€Å"Housekeeping† is written by one of the most famous and talented author, Marilynne Robinson. As one of the certified Pulitzer Prize-winning authors, Marilynne Robinson’s 1980 novel called the â€Å"Housekeeping† has been nominated for the category of Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, which later-on she also won for another novel entitled Gilead that paved the way for her Hemingway Foundation/PEN Award for best first novel. As of the present time, this novel continues to receive and gain broad recognitions and honors that commemorate the work and contribution of a great American author in the industry of publishing and American literary writing scene. In the year 2003, the Guardian unlimited, a British online site owned by Guardian Media Group, named the novel â€Å"Housekeeping† as one of their top 100 list of selection of greatest novels of all time. In addition to this, the Time Magazine, one of the giants in the publishing business, included the said novel of Marilynne Robinson â€Å"Housekeeping† in their TIME 100 Best English-language Novels from 1923 to 2005. This inclusion and recognition shows the sterling quality of the novel and its elements. In a sense, there are various reasons and apparent explanations as to how and why this novel of Marilynne Robinson continues to attract the interest of the readers and still remain as one of the ever significant stories that has been written. One of the better rationales is that â€Å"Housekeeping,† just like any other widely admired novels, is written with a very strong plot that is designed to directly present and depict a significant personality and character through the representation of Ruth, one of the leading characters in the novel. In this regard, this essay would directly draw a clear picture and discussion about the character of Ruth and her identity in the main narrative of the novel. In the novel, Ruth is mainly depicted and stood as a character which has a stong personality that is composed and firm despite the negative events that have happened in their family and between her and Lucille, who is her sister. Ruth is presented in the main narrative of the novel as a brave woman who is filled with hopes and beliefs with their family and their eccentric way of living. Set to live and grow-up with a dysfunctional family, where she and her sister, Lucille, are abandoned by their biological parents with their mother committing a suicide, it is observable that the presentation of Ruth in the novel is a paradigm that the author has used to illustrate specific characteristics of an individual who is brave enough to live and move on with what he or she believes is right. As for the own perception of Ruth, it is observable that staying and living under the eccentric way of life by their family is what makes her complete as a person and as a normal individual on this world. In respect to the representation of Ruth, it is apparent that the main narrative of the novel further strengthens the notion that Ruth, though has been through different pictures and stories of pain and difficulties with her experiences of a dysfunctional family, still has that belief about the primary stance and role of family to her life as a living entity in their community. As seen apparent to the novel’s story, Ruths standpoint is that her family is the primal basis that gives her that distinct identity as a normal entity in this world. Ruth believes that living and adhering to their unconventional family lifestyle, more especially according to the life of her Auntie, Sylvie, renders her the particular details as a living member of their society. Thus, unlike her sister, Lucile, Ruth takes pride in living her life according to the legacy of their family despite of all the difficulties and many questions that she has in mind. Despite of the many differences and misunderstandings that she has against her younger sibling, Lucille, she has remained to be a loving and caring older sister for Lucille. As seen apparent in the narrative of the novel, Ruth’s character is an example of a typical protective and concerned elder sister for Lucille where she has stood before her sister for security. Ruth also expressed her love for her younger sister through their shared collection of quality and happy moments spent together prior to the decision of Lucille to go the opposite way and live a conventional life with another family residing in town. In addition to this, Ruths character is also affectionate and emotional as she grieved with so much pain with the departure of her sister to live a different way of life. Moreover, it can also be said that Ruth, despite the characteristic of being brave and composed in pursuing and sticking with the what she believe is right, is a character filled with different confusions and questions which she tries to find specific answers and enlightenment for. As the main narrator of the novel, who tells mostly the story of her experiences from childhood up to womanhood, Ruth herself has numerous thoughts and issues that she can not even answer by her self. There are things and actions that she is seeing, more especially from the eccentric lifestyle of her Auntie Sylvie and her grandmother from the moment they are forsaken by their own parents. Thus, Ruth’s main personality and character is shaped by many of her own undertakings and events in her life that leads her to be coherent in such a way that she is independent to make any decisions that is based from her own way of thinking. As compared to her sister, Lucille, Ruth is more composed and firm as she refused to embrace the extensive influence of the outside forces such as the predominance of modern civilization and beliefs of many individuals that surrounds them. Ruth is a character in the novel which has played a rather distinct important role. She served as the narrator of the story and her viewpoint says the distinct taste of the novel and it is on her personality from which the story depends on. She has a little sister whom she grew up with and as she became nonetheless taller than the rest, there is the need for her sister Lucille to remove the heels of the shoes in order for her to be able to move more naturally and allow her to stand more normally. In this respect, it is seen that Marilynne Robinson, the author of the novel, has the similar characteristic where she remains taller than the rest but tries to remove the heels that sets her apart from the rest. More so, she tries to remove the false pretentions and high expectations which come from the current notions of fiction from the people. Another characteristic of Ruth in the story is her ability to follow and adopt a particular characteristic that is embodied in the values of her mother. According to one statement of Ruth in the novel, the requests of her mother to wait for her has â€Å"established in me the habit of waiting and expectation which make any present moment most significant for what it does not contain† (Robinson, 214). This particular characteristic of Ruth, as a character in the novel, has shown her to be a child patiently and dreamingly wishes of a parent who has abandoned her. As her mother left them in the care of one another, they have continuously and expectedly tried to contain all the hardships and patiently waited for something which they are unsure would come to them anymore. Works Cited Robinson, Marilynne. Housekeeping: A Novel. New York: St Martins Pr, 2004.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Recognition of Types of Abuse and Neglect

Recognition of Types of Abuse and Neglect Current guidelines and safeguarding concerns Recognition of types of abuse and neglect. My setting is committed to promoting awareness of child abuse issues throughout its training and learning programmes for adults. They are committed to empowering young children, through its early childhood curriculum, promoting their right to be strong, resilient and listened to. The Staff have undertaken relevant and up to date safeguarding and child protection training through induction and specific safeguarding training as required by the London Borough of Islington. Training for all staff is updated every three years as required and every two years for the designated officer. Agency staff, volunteers and students are also briefed on their roles and responsibilities during their induction to the setting which covers how to identify signs and symptoms of abuse and how to share their concerns with the designated safeguarding person (Bennett Court Playgroup). Bennett Court playgroup are committed to safeguard and protect children. Children have the right to freedom from abuse and harm. They work with children, parents/carers and the community to ensure the rights and safety of children and to give them the very best start in life. Bennett Courts Safeguarding and Child Protection Policy is based on the London Child Protection and Safeguarding Children Procedures (LSCB 2013) and in line with Islington councils Early Years Safeguarding and Child protection procedures and Guidance (2011) along with the Working Together to Safeguard Children (DCSF 2013). Children with Special educational needs are welcomed and supported to make a smooth transition to the setting by discussing how they can best meet their needs, gain the appropriate support and services before starting the setting   (Bennett Court Playgroup). Please see (Appendix 2) for current procedures meeting the Safeguarding Children and child protection requirements. Whistleblowing is when a member of staff, in any line of work provides information of improper and unacceptable behaviour within a setting against an employee, other working professionals or a member of the public. An example of improper or unacceptable behaviour may be when someone is discriminating, bullying or harassing their colleagues and/or others. Within legislations whistleblowing is known as The Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998. This act is to safeguard employees that may be experiencing types of prejudice, disadvantages or harm during their employment or they may be disregarded by their employer if they have disclosed information in obedience to the legislation (Brookes, 2015). My setting believes that children and parents are entitled to expect courtesy and prompt, careful attention to their needs and wishes. they welcome suggestions on how to improve the setting, will give prompt and serious attention to any concerns about how the setting is run (Bennett Court Playgroup). Any concerns of bad practice should be managed appropriately before whistleblowing is needed. When staff are made to feel openly comfortable raising concerns about bad practice within the setting during staff meetings and under constant supervision, this will allow bad practices to be revised and modified before any types for cause of concern will result in harm towards a child and/or member of staff/public. Any member of staff involved in whistleblowing within the setting holds the responsibility to be able to indicate the bad practice, be able to record and report factual information of the incident to required parties for e.g. your manager or agencies like Ofsted and childrens social services, keeping copies of all relevant information shared between agencies and ensuring to follow the settings procedures for complaints, please see (Appendix 3) for my settings complaints procedures. Practitioners must follow the whistleblowing procedure whether or not they will be treated differen tly or become involved in conflict with other colleagues. Staff who may come across bad practice and choose to ignore this can result in implicating the individuals in the bad practice. Dealing with bad practice should be risen within the early stages to obstruct any further escalations (Small wonders child care, no date). Early Years Practitioners have a duty to the safeguarding, protection and welfare of children when left in their care by parents/carers. My setting commits to developing and maintaining a culture of openness and honesty when working in partnerships with parents/carers to ensure the best interests of children and their families are met. An EYP must be able to identify signs and symptoms of abuse whilst children are in their care, they must be knowledgeable to diversity, promote equality of opportunity between children through various activities and in planning that will support the safety, welfare and protection of children for e.g. motivating and teaching children different ways to keep safe for e.g. when taking children out on trips teach them to stay together and how to cross the road correctly, to be able to express themselves openly and to be confident sharing their concerns. If a child ever discloses any form of abuse made towards them, an EYP must not interfere whilst the child is talking, make notes of facts only and not interpretations of what was said, also if a child asks them to keep this to themselves, they must explain in a gentle way for the child to understand that they must tell someone in order to keep this child safe, that the child has done the right thing, it is not not their fault and they are in no trouble. EYPs have a statutory responsibility to notify agencies if they have reason to believe that any childs safety and welfare are of any cause for concern (Bateman, 2013). When dealing with confidentiality all suspicions and investigations must be kept in an individual file in a locked cupboard or files on a PC with a secure password and shared only with those who require access to it. In my setting any information is shared under the guidance of Islingtons Safeguarding Children Board and follows the legislation, Data Protection Act (1998). All practitioners must follow their settings confidentiality policy and procedures to ensure that they are aware of what can be kept confidential and what causes for concerns need to be reported and how. In my setting we have a designated safeguarding person and also someone who acts in her absence, I have been made fully aware of who and where to report any concerns I may have. Practitioners must never share information about children out of the setting or to unnecessary parties   (Bennett Court Playgroup). When working with others for the safeguarding, protection and welfare of children, this can benefit them in many ways. For e.g. as an EYP there may be some things you may not be able to help a child with, possibly SEN or disclosures of harm or abuse, so you must be able to report and refer a child to the right services that best suits their needs. Some services that may work together to safeguard children can be childrens social services, health services, schools, psychologists, GPs, local police, the UNCRC etc. also working in partnership with parents supports the safeguarding of children, unless this will put the child at risk or further harm. Working in partnership also allows services to pinpoint any issues within the family and help resolve these issues in the best possible way, conducting constructive meetings to expand and assess each individual child. Where children may have certain health problems it is important to gain information and learn about how to handle any conditio n at any point and also be aware of who to contact when needed, for e.g. you may need to report certain symptoms to the childs parents/carers, GPs or health specialists   (Bennett Court Playgroup). Practitioners must be aware that the abuse of children may occur in different forms, the four categories of abuse are physical, emotional, sexual and neglect. Bullying is also a form of abuse, as like female Genital Mutilation, the impact of domestic violence (DV) including Honour based violence which comes across all cultures and communities. Practitioners must be mindful that these forms of abuse can fall into one or more of the above categories and are often taken to great lengths to be disguised. This may include refusing freedom or contact with others, taken out off or forced to leave the country. Children that may be suffering from physical, emotional or sexual abuse may be experiencing neglect and this may be demonstrated through direct or indirect disclosures or through their behaviours within the setting. Practitioners must be able to recognise the signs, symptoms, indicators and behaviours that may cause concern, for example the child may unexpectedly become quiet, tearful, withdrawn or aggressive. Notable changes in a childs appearance e.g. loss of weight without a medical explanation, eating problems, for instance, overeating or loss of appetite, unexplained bruising or marks or signs of neglect, some signs of neglect may be when a child is wearing inappropriate clothing for the weather or clothes that are too big/small, a child may not have appropriate lunch to eat if provided by parents/carers, or they have not been washed, had their hair combed properly or untreated lice.   A child may show changes during their play, they may disengage from other children they may also hurt or be cruel to other children, a child may be knowledgeable to adult sexual behaviour, or they may participate in sexual play which is unsuitable for the childrens age   (Bennett Court Playgroup). In my setting where there is a concern about a childs welfare or wellbeing, or a concern that a child may be in need of protection, this should be recorded using the Islingtons concerns tracking form and then passed on and discussed with one of the designated child protection officers for action (or if unobtainable seek advice from Islingtons Childrens Social Care Team). The records placed must include the actual disclosure or concern, date, time and the name of the person who has recorded the concern and stored in the childs personal file in a secure cupboard. All staff and also volunteers are made aware to report any concerns immediately to the designated member of staff,   all concerns will be discussed with parents/carers unless this will put the child in further risks of harm or abuse, records of concerns, emails, notes or phone conversations and actions are noted and confidentially stored in a secure place. In my setting when we have concerns about a childs welfare we need to focus on, the needs of the child, their physical and emotional welfare, be sensitive, taking into account individual familys circumstances and discuss this with one of the designated members of staff. If it is suspected that a child is in immediate risk of ham or abuse this must be reported as soon as possible to the police and/or childrens social services (Bennett Court Playgroup). Appendix 1 LegalFramework- Legislations for the safeguarding, protection and welfare of children in my setting. Primary Legislation Children Act (1989) Protection of Children Act (1999) Data Protection Act (1998) The Children Act (Every Child Matters) (2004) Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (2006) Help Children to Achieve More (2010) The Early Years Statutory Framework (2014) Secondary Legislation Sexual Offences Act (2003) Criminal Justice and Court Services Act (2000) Race Relations (Amendment) Act (2000) Equalities Act (2010) Data Protection Act (1998) Further Guidance Working Together to Safeguard Children (revised HMG 2013) What to do if youre Worried a Child is Being Abused (HMG 2006) Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families (DoH 2000) The Common Assessment Framework (2006) Statutory guidance on making arrangements to safeguard and promote the welfare of children under section 11 of the Children Act 2004 (HMG 2007) Information Sharing: Practitioners Guide (HMG 2006) Other useful publications: Child Protection Record (2007)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   (Bennett Court Playgroup) Appendix 2 Current procedures to Safeguarding Children and child protection requirements in my setting. We carry out the following procedures to ensure we meet the Safeguarding Children and child protection requirements, we do this by Recognising that all children have the right to freedom from abuse and harm. Promoting joint working with parents in the interests of childrens welfare and well being. Ensuring all our staff and volunteers are carefully selected and vetted ensuring that they carefully selected through the CRB and DBS recruitment process, have the relevant qualifications and experience and accept responsibility for helping to prevent the abuse of children in their care. We have a named designated safeguarding   officer who takes specific responsibility for young childrens and young peoples protection, safety and well-being. There is also a second designated safeguarding officer who acts in her absence. Supporting all staff to in bringing their concerns to the attention of the Designated member of staff, so they can be considered and acted upon if necessary. Responding quickly and appropriately to all suspicions or allegations of abuse. Providing parents /carers, children /young people with the opportunity to voice any concerns they may have. Adopting positive behaviour management procedure and strategies which are non-violent and do not impose humiliation or bias attitudes. Reviewing the effectiveness of the organisations child protection policies and procedures yearly (unless something proved to be ineffective). Working with external agencies, for example childrens social care team, police and   health visitors, to ensure as far as possible young children/ people are protected Not tolerating bullying. Incidents of bullying will be investigated and treated seriously and action will be taken in partnership with parents. Children are supported to form positive relationships and refrain from harming each other through anti-bullying practice (Bennett Court Playgroup). Appendix 3 Complaints procedures in my setting. All settings are required to keep a summary log of all complaints that reach stage two or beyond. This is to be made available to parents as well as to Ofsted inspectors. Stage 1 Any parent who has a concern about an aspect of the settings provision talks over, first of all, his/her concerns with the setting leader. Most complaints should be resolved amicably and informally at this stage. Stage 2 If this does not have a satisfactory outcome, or if the problem recurs, the parent moves to this stage of the procedure by putting the concerns or complaint in writing to the setting leader and the owner or chair of the management committee. For parents who are not comfortable with making written complaints, there is a template form for recording complaints in the above-mentioned publication; the form may be completed with the person in charge and signed by the parent. The setting stores written complaints from parents in the childs personal file. However, if the complaint involves a detailed investigation, the setting leader may wish to store all information relating to the investigation in a separate file designated for this complaint. When the investigation into the complaint is completed, the setting leader or manager meets with the parent to discuss the outcome. Parents must be informed of the outcome of the investigation within 28 days of making the complaint. When the complaint is resolved at this stage, the summative points are logged in the Complaints Summary Record. Stage 3 If the parent is not satisfied with the outcome of the investigation, he or she requests a meeting with the setting leader and the owner/chair of the management committee. The parent should have a friend or partner present if required and the leader should have the support of the chairperson of the management committee, or the proprietor/senior manager, present. An agreed written record of the discussion is made as well as any decision or action to take as a result. All of the parties present at the meeting sign the record and receive a copy of it. This signed record signifies that the procedure has concluded. When the complaint is resolved at this stage, the summative points are logged in the Complaints Summary Record. Stage 4 If at the stage three meeting the parent and setting cannot reach agreement, an external mediator is invited to help to settle the complaint. This person should be acceptable to both parties, listen to both sides and offer advice.   A mediator has no legal powers but can help to define the problem, review the action so far and suggest further ways in which it might be resolved. Staff or volunteers within the Pre-school Learning Alliance are appropriate persons to be invited to act as mediators. The mediator keeps all discussions confidential. S/he can hold separate meetings with the setting personnel (setting leader and owner/chair of the management committee) and the parent, if this is decided to be helpful. The mediator keeps an agreed written record of any meetings that are held and of any advice s/he gives. Stage 5 When the mediator has concluded her/his investigations, a final meeting between the parent, the setting leader and the owner/chair of the management committee is held. The purpose of this meeting is to reach a decision on the action to be taken to deal with the complaint. The mediators advice is used to reach this conclusion. The mediator is present at the meeting if all parties think this will help a decision to be reached. A record of this meeting, including the decision on the action to be taken, is made.   Everyone present at the meeting signs the record and receives a copy of it.   This signed record signifies that the procedure has concluded. The role of the Office for Standards in Education, Early Years Directorate (Ofsted) and the Local Safeguarding Children Board Parents may approach Ofsted directly at any stage of this complaints procedure. In addition, where there seems to be a possible breach of the settings registration requirements, it is essential to involve Ofsted as the registering and inspection body with a duty to ensure the Welfare Requirements of the Early Years Foundation Stage are adhered to. If a child appears to be at risk, our setting follows the procedures of the Local Safeguarding Children Board in our local authority. In these cases, both the parent and setting are informed and the setting leader works with Ofsted or the Local Safeguarding Children Board to ensure a proper investigation of the complaint, followed by appropriate action. Records A record of complaints against our setting and/or the children and/or the adults working in our setting is kept, including the date, the circumstances of the complaint and how the complaint was managed. The outcome of all complaints is recorded in the Summary Complaints Record which is available for parents and Ofsted inspectors on request. (Bennett Court Playgroup)

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Concept Of Integrated Marketing Communication Marketing Essay

The Concept Of Integrated Marketing Communication Marketing Essay As defined by the American Association of Advertising Agencies, integrated marketing communications is a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan (Elliott, 2012, P:491). Integrated Marketing Communications, on the one hand, covering advertising, promotion, public relations, direct marketing, CI, packaging, media and all other dissemination activities put into the scope of marketing activities. On the other hand, to enables enterprises are unified dissemination of information communicated to the customer. Its central idea is based on business communication with customers satisfied the value of customer needs as oriented to determine the enterprise unified promotional strategy and coordinate use of various means of communication. Performing the advantage of the different communication tools in order to enabling enterprises achieve promotional low cost and impact of high-strength form promotional climax. Most national brands us e all parts of the mix, each in proportion to the needs of the product. Cereal makers, for example, concentrate most efforts and money on advertising and sales promotions, such as coupons. Other products call for different mix ratios, with some mix components completely eschewed. In addition to these key promotional tools, the marketer can also use other techniques, such as exhibitions and product placement in movies, songs or video games, which have been growing in popularity in recent years. Before proceeding any further, however, it is important to stress that promotional mix decisions should not be made in isolation. As we saw with pricing, all aspects of the marketing mix need to be blended together carefully. The promotional mix used must be aligned with the decisions made with regard to product, pricing and distribution, in order to communicate benefits to a target market. From the facts of the case study, Pepsi used a new approach in its marketing communication. Pepsi holds the number one, third and fourth position among music, overall position among all companies, and entertainment channels. It gives a significant contribution on the music channels with 12.81% share of coverage and holds the first position in that category. It has the third position on the whole TV media with overall 4.29% share of coverage, the effectiveness of which is reported in reduction by researchers (Kotler Keller 2006, p.576). Similarly, it comes at number fourth on entertainment channels. Overall, these new media win the trust of consumers by connecting with them at a deeper level. Meanwhile it increases sales and bringing a better brand and corporate image for Pepsi. Marketers are taking note of many different social media opportunities and beginning to implement new social initiatives at a higher rate than ever before. Social media marketing and the businesses that utilize it have become more sophisticated. In order to maintain the vitality of enterprises, marketers should be flexible and effectively change the media habits of customers so as to maintain the brand fresh and attractive Q2. How effectively has Pepsi integrated digital and traditional media for the promotion of their products? Provide examples of digital media used. Nowadays millions of consumers converse on a daily basis in online communities, discussion forums, blogs and social networks. They turn to the Internet to share opinions, advice, grievances and recommendations. It has been said that traditional media is losing its face value and that the Internet is a fad and digital only applies to the millennium generation. While that may seem true, if you want to stay on the innovative cusp for your business, use both traditional and internet media marketing and here are some reasons why: 1. Online conversations can power or deflate a companys brand. 2. Discover specific issues that are being discussed around your company, brand or organization and create feedback to these issues. 3. There may be events, trends and issues that may be influencing industry and brand buzz. 4. Measure how your online and offline marketing campaigns resonate with consumers. 5. Leverage word-of-mouth to drive brand credibility, and ultimately sales if you use face-to-face marketing, Internet Marketing, Search Engine Optimization Strategy, and Social Media Strategy correctly. People are more tend to communicate through both word-of-mouth and social media when they are engaged with the product, service, or idea. This engagement may come naturally for supporters of causes, political candidates, and trendy new technological products. However, it can also be creatively stimulated for products and services which generate less psychological involvement of customers. For example, Pepsi (2008) uses its Pepsi Stuff online customer loyalty program to engage consumers by enabling them to redeem points for MP3 downloads, television show downloads, CDs, DVDs, electronics, and apparel. Campaign participants are also allowed to participate in sweepstakes drawings for larger prizes, such as home theater systems and trip giveaways. Coca Cola (2008) has a similar campaign entitled My Coke Rewards. According to Nielson research, TV users watch more than ever before (an average of 127 hrs, 15 min per month) and these users are spending 9% more time using the Internet (26 hrs, 26 min per month) from last year. Approximately 220 million Americans have Internet access at home and/or work with a growing number using the Internet for research and social media. Knowing this research, traditional media entertains and communicates to a mass audience whereas digital media entertains, communicates with, and engages the individual. The benefits of digital media can be highly measurable and marketers can often see a direct effect in the form of improved sales in addition to establishing a direct link with the consumer. This can also be cost effective. However, the pitfalls of digital marketing can be that the medium is new, constantly changing and evolving with results that vary. Digital media is known as digitized content (text, graphics, audio and video) that can be transmitted over the Internet. Recently, Pepsi immensely interest in digital and social media. PepsiCo has put more energy and financial resources for digital media, and nearly one-third of the companys budget has been used in the digital realm. But Pepsi still can not ignore the power of traditional media. Traditional media has a higher degree of trust than the electronic media. On the content, traditional media will be further description of the relevance directed on big news events and enhance the audience to participate in the interactive feel of the news events. This is the new electronic media can not match. Q3. How might Pepsi measure the effectiveness of its new campaign? Provide examples. Basically, relatively simple measurements are used by marketers to gauge the effectiveness of its promotional or advertising campaigns. These are mainly reflected in the aspects of product, price, promotion, consumer feedback. Meeting its objectives is the best measurement of a campaigns effectiveness of its ability. From the case study, Pepsis objectives could be: To enable a company to control its marketing plan. To help to motivate individual and terms to reach a common goal. To provide an agreed, consistent focus for all functions of an organization. All objectives should be SMART i.e. Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timed Specific- Be precise about what are going to achieve Measurable- Quality your objectives Achievable- Are you attempting too much? Realistic- Do you have the resource to make the objective happen Time- state when you will achieve the objective? Marketing Share Objectives To gain more market for soft drinks industry 2. Profitability Objectives To achieve more return on capital employed 3. Promotional Objectives To increase awareness of the product on the market. 4. Objectives for survival To survive the current market war between competitors. 5. Objectives for Growth To increase the size of the worldwide Coca Cola enterprise. Generally, Pepsi could use the following to measure the campaigns effectiveness: Stimulate an increase in sales Remind customers of the existence of a product Inform customers Build a brand image Build customer loyalty and relationship Change customer attitudes Marketing efforts that are ineffective are a drain of time and money for the company; by evaluating each strategy, companies can pare down a marketing plan to the most powerful parts. For the most efficient marketing plan, conduct a review of the marketing strategy periodically throughout the year. Begin each new effort by building in monitoring mechanisms that will make the evaluation process a natural part of each marketing campaign or activity.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Cloning Dialoge :: Argumentative Persuasive Topics

Cloning Dialoge    The setting is a small college's biology class where only three students out of twenty students have come to class because it is the last day before spring break begins. The three students' names are Andy, Kristen, and Eric. Seeing only three students in the class, the professor changes his lecture material into a class discussion involving the recent scientific breakthrough in the field of cloning. During the discussion, the professor explains how the cloning of a sheep named Dolly was done. In addition, the students and the professor share their views on the advantageous and the detrimental side of cloning either humans or animals. Professor: Good morning class! I am sure that you all have heard about the recent scientific discovery in the process of cloning. If not, allow me to fill you in on this current controversial scientific discovery. Last week, a Scottish scientist named Dr. Ian Wilmut from the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, successfully cloned an adult sheep. I said adult sheep because scientists already have the ability to clone sheep and calves, for farming purposes, from undifferentiated embryonic cells. Is there any questions so far? Kristen: Um, yes, professor. Would you please elaborate on the term undifferentiated cell? Also, the word cloning sounds like something you would hear from science fiction movies or novels--isn't the cloning process very complicated? Professor: To answer your first question, Kristen, an undifferentiated cell is a cell that has the ability to create other specific cells, such as skin, hair, brain, and muscles, as it activates certain genes on chromosomes. For your second question, the concept of cloning is really not that complicated to understand. Allow me to explain as I split Dr. Wilmut's cloning process into three steps. During the first step, udder cells from a six-year-old Finn Dorset ewe were taken and placed into a culture dish. The culture dish, containing low levels of nutrients, starved the cells, causing them to stop their dividing and hibernate its active genes. Meanwhile, the nucleus with its DNA from an unfertilized egg--also called an oocyte--taken from a Scottish Blackface ewe, is sucked out with a hair thin pipette, leaving the empty egg with all its cellular tools needed to produce an embryo. By the way, this process is called the nuclear transfer. Okay, now onto the second step; the egg cell an d a donor cell are placed next to each other and fused together, like soap bubbles, by an electric pulse.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Pneumatic Tyre Characteristics :: essays research papers

Introduction The purpose of this technical report is to communicate the results of the Pneumatic Tyre Characteristics laboratory by investigating the effect of cornering force on slip angle. The technical report is presented to the academic staff of the Engineering Systems Department at the Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham. It is assumed that the reader is fully familiar with the experiment and with the equipment on which it is preformed. Experimental Conditions †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  For this particular experiment the gain of the output for the strain gauges are set to 1 as 0 to 8 degrees slip angle is been measured. If smaller angles are measured a larger gain may be required. †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The total displacement of the trolley that runs along the track is approximately 2.17 meters. However, this may slightly vary in the results, especially with higher slip angles due to the reaction force acting on the reversible hydraulic motor that drives the track. For consistency the corresponding point for each distance is taken in the results. †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The current details and condition of the tested tyre are given. - Manufacture: Avon. - Dimension: 710 / 22.0 – 13. - Condition: Generally worn all around with patches of the tyre (approximately 60mm in diameter) in worse condition on the inside of the wheel. †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The tyre was tested at 14, 16 and 18 psi pressure. For each test at each angle increment the air valve is pointing downwards purely for consistency as the tyres circumference may vary. The increments for each test are as follows. - 0 – 5 degrees in 0.25 degree increments. - 5 – 8 degrees in 0.5 degree increments. †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The experimental equipment is set to output 1000 points of displacement and side force. The computer capture rate is set to 50Hz and a total run time of 20sec †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Final experimental conditions that should be mentioned include: - Before the conduction of the experiment the camber of the wheel should be checked and adjusted to zero degrees. - The track is manufactured to have a sand paper surface. This is important to exert a sufficient side force on the tyre and is in good condition. - For each experiment, initially slip pads are used under the wheel as the mechanical mechanism used to apply the vertical force is applied at a radius and therefore would give an unwanted offset. - A constant vertical load of 1.5kN is applied to the tyre. This load is kept consistent by a mechanism which includes a beam and counter balance weights.

Equality for Women Essay -- essays research papers

How would you like to earn about an extra million dollars? Is this hard to do? Then answer is no, all you have to do is be born male and graduate college. Throughout history women have strived for equality. The informal slogan of the Decade of Women became â€Å"Women do two-thirds of the world's work, receive 10 percent of the world's income and own 1 percent of the means of production† (Robbins, 354). Throughout the world the disparity of rights for women is immense. The inequalities between girls and boys are evident prior to children beginning elementary school. Girls are made aware that they are unequal to boys as soon as they start. Even different behaviors are acceptable for boys than for girls, for instance. Every time students are seated or lined up by gender, teachers are affirming that girls and boys should be treated differently. Girls are praised for being neat, quiet, and calm, whereas boys are encouraged to think independently, be active and speak up. Girls are socialized in schools to recognize popularity as being important and learn that educational performance and ability are not as important. "Girls in grades six and seven rate being popular and well-liked as more important than being perceived as competent or independent. Boys, on the other hand, are more likely to rank independence and competence as more important" (Bailey, 169). A permissive attitude towards sexual harassment is another way in which schools reinforce the socialization of girls as inferior. When schools ignore sexist, racist, homophobic, and violent interactions between students, they are giving tacit approval to such behaviors. We as a society taunt boys for throwing like a girl, or crying like a girl, which implies that being a girl is worse than being a boy. According to the American Association of University Women Report, "The clear message to both boys and girls is that girls are not worthy of respect and that appropriate behavior for boys includes exerting power over girls -- or over other, weaker boys" (Bailey, 173). "Because classrooms are microcosms of society, mirroring its strengths and ills alike, it follows that the normal socialization patterns of young children that often lead to distorted perceptions of gender roles are reflected in the classro... ...ns taking action to stop discrimination and violence against women. Work Cited Bailey, S. How Schools Shortchange Girls: The AAUW Report. New York, NY: Marlowe & Company. 1992. Henslin. Essentials of Sociology, 5th ed. Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Longman. 1995-2005. 266–272 Mann, Judy. The difference, Growing up Female in America, New York, New York., Warner Books, Inc. 1994. 1-12. Marshall, C.S. & Reihartz, J. Gender issues in the classroom. Clearinghouse, 1997. 333- 338. Massey, Garth. Readings for Sociology Forth Edition, New York, New York. W.W. Norton & Company, 2003. 231-237. McCormick, P. Are girls taught to fail? Chicago, IL. U.S. Catholic, 60, 1995. 38-42. Robbins, Richard H. Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism, Allyn & Bacon Publishers, 1999. 354-355 Sullivan, Marianne. â€Å"Women's Poverty Deepens Amid Slow 2003 Recovery.† womensenews.org, 30 August 2004, 29 October 2004, [http://womensenews.org/article.cfm/dyn/aid/1968/context/archive] â€Å"Wage Gap Increases Between Women and Men, US Census Report.† Feminist.org. 2 September 2004. 28 October 2004. [http://www.feminist.org/news/newsbyte/uswirestory.asp?id=8622]

Saturday, August 17, 2019

From being a maintenance planner at BMW

From being a maintenance planner at BMW , Norbert Reithofer was able to work his way up to being the head of production, and finally to being the company’s chief executive.Judging from his associates, his ability to build his network of alliances is indubitable. For example, the former CEO and now chief of BMW’s supervisory board is Joachim Milberg who was actually Reithofer’s thesis adviser in graduate school.This does not say, however that Reithofer’s ability to make alliances is limited to the top level. In 2002, he was able to halve the time requirement for full production of the next-generation three series from 6 months to three, with Burkhard Goeschel, BMW’s Development Chief.The increased level of production did not compromise the cars’ quality, as skeptics would like to think. Reithofer and Goeschel was able to assemble a team of R&D who worked for three years. From its introduction in March, none of the produced cars were reported t o have any quality problems. Reithofer believes that managers should be role models and should work together.Being the CEO, Roethofer will seek to keep the managers and workers to stay ahead. At present, he is expecting brands like Toyota’s Lexus and Nissan’s Infinti to set up plants in Europe and work on building BMW-like cars.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Technology in Education

Software Support Tools According to Rogers (2008), â€Å"the landscape of the classroom is being transformed, with technology becoming a driving force† (p. 92). In today’s classroom there are numerous software support tools available to enhance learning and cater to the needs of all learners. Roblyer and Doering (2010) presented six categories of software support tools. They listed these as: material generators, data collection and analysis, graphics, planning and organizing, research and reference, and tools for the content areas. Material generators are software tools that are used for making instructional materials such as posters, brochures, quizzes, tests, rubrics, puzzles, worksheets, games, awards, and IEPs for special education students. Many teachers regard these tools as essential to the day-to-day operation of the classroom. Wellert (2008) stated that the use of games allow teachers to directly cater to the learning style needs of the visual and tactile learners, and that games can expedite the learning process when constructed with the different learning styles in mind. Data collection and analysis software tools allow teachers to collect information about their students and closely monitor their performance and progress throughout the year. According to Roblyer and Doering (2010), the electronic grade book is preferred by many teachers because of its special feature to analyse data from tests and print reports based on the information given. Student information systems (SIS) help teachers keep account of students’ data such as attendance and test scores. Roblyer and Doering also referred to computerized testing systems which offer benefits such as immediate feedback of results. Additionally, it allows students to take tests on screens or scanned sheets. According to the authors, these simplify test scheduling because everyone does not take the test at the same time. Graphic tools consist of draw/paint programs, image editing tools, charting/graphing tools, and clip art animation, sound, video, and font collections (Roblyer & Doering, 2010). These allow teachers and students to create, illustrate, modify, and combine drawings, illustrations, clip art, pictures, charts and graphs. They also give students the opportunity to create their own designs and show them on paper or screen. Additionally, teachers and students can insert these into documents and reports to give a more professional look. Catchings and MacGregor (as cited in Roblyer & Doering, 2010) believed that these programs aid in the development of students’ visual-verbal literacy and creativity. Planning and organizing software tools entails outlining and concept mapping, software, lesson planners, and scheduling and time management tools. Outlining tools assist students in outlining their story ideas and help them to get their stories started, while the other tools help teachers organize their time and prepare for instruction. Research and reference tools such as electronic encyclopedias, atlases, and dictionaries help facilitate research. Electronic atlases and maps are useful in the classroom because students get to see and learn information being taught, and are especially helpful because they are interactive. Wellert (2008) stated that students need to have active participation and involvement in lessons that include technology. Furthermore, student engagement is vital to ensure motivation during the learning process. Finally, the last category of software support tools put forward by Roblyer and Doering (2010) is content area tools. These support teaching and learning in the different content areas. Multimedia Multimedia refers to multiple media or a combination of media. Media can be still graphics, and photographs, sound, motion video, animation, and or text items along with products used to communicate information in multiple ways. Multimedia impacts the classroom in various ways. For example it increases motivation as it offers a variety of options for the user and encourages the learner to be proactive. For students who might not be strong in written expression but have visual aptitude, multimedia offers flexible learning modes. It also fosters the development of creative and critical thinking skills as it opens up creative avenues for students to apply higher thinking skills.. For those who struggle with organizing and presenting information, multimedia offers improved writing process as students are equipped to create characters and linking dialogue to it rather than simply creating a lengthy story. Creativity is encouraged by this process. The use of multimedia also decreases the time it takes to present lengthy presentations as information is presented in chunks as oppose to monotonous reports. According to Mayer and Moreno, 1998; Moreno and Mayer, 2002 (as sited in Roblyer and Doering, 2010) learners exhibited greater comprehension and retention of learned materials when pictures were accompanied by spoken words rather than by written words. They observed that the â€Å"split attention† effect was consistent with a model of working memory that had separate visual and auditory channels. As oppose to chalk and talk which rarely engage students, the use of multimedia encourages interaction and positive immediate feedback. Students are prompted when answers are incorrect giving them the option to correct their answers. Multimedia also provides easy navigation with clearly defined procedures. It is learner controlled for those who are less experienced as well as those who are advanced in technology. Color is also used to bring certain elements to the learner’s attention. Utility provides assortment of functionalities and features necessary to accomplish their instructional tasks, while usability deals with the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of the user. Aesthetics on the other hand, represents elements of design which enhance or heightens the learner’s experience as oppose to just satisfying the pedagogical or instructional objectives. In addition (Lavie & Tractinsky, 2004; Wilson, 2005), research on emotion suggests that aesthetically pleasing objects positively influence our emotions which in turn help students to actively process material. Commercial multimedia products include instructional software such as tutorials, drills, simulations, instruction and problem solving tools. It also includes interactive storybooks and eBooks for toddler’s right up to adults. There are digital libraries, Google books, listening to books online, Grimm Fairy Tales as well as Clifford Interactive Storybooks. In addition to these, these products include reference materials such as Encarta (Encyclopedia), Almanacs, Atlases, newspapers and newsletters, collection of development resources like Clip art, Audio clips, Video clips and Animations, all of which can be used for learning. When producing power points and graphics, fancy fonts and animation can all be incorporated. Multimedia tools also provide editing systems which allows the polishing of the end product. The question about how to effectively integrate support tools, multimedia, and hypermedia into teaching and learning for the highest potential relative advantage, this question can be answered by simply choosing the right tools to meet specific needs of the audience being taught. It is no longer debatable whether or not these tools are relevant, but which tools are relevant for what and who is being taught. Hypermedia According to (Roblyer and Doering, 2010), Hypermedia is also known as â€Å"linked media†. It is a system in which information stored in various media is connected, often through the internet. Most multimedia products are also hypermedia products. There exist a synonymous connection of their uses and alternative purpose. The ability to get information using multimedia tools, from one media element to another, makes them hypermedia. There are six kinds of hypermedia formats, such as: commercial hypermedia software, presentation software, video production and editing systems, hypermedia design and development software, virtual reality environments and Web 2. 0. Hypermedia has been impacting the educational system in many ways. Students are able to attend classes in the comfort of their home. Teachers are able to peruse through a wide variety of activities to effectively and efficiently deliver lessons. Hypermedia is geared at providing multiple channels by which students are able to learn and process information. It has been stated by researchers that students who learn through verbal and visual means are better able to solve problems in comparison to those who learn only through verbal means. In using hypermedia in the classroom, it saves time. Students and teachers are able to search through multiple types of information in a short length of time, with little or no cost. It can be stressful and frustrating for those who are not fully equipped with the skills of navigating. Users can also use hypermedia to add, modify or share information. The software is designed to be easy to use and understand. The programs available can incorporate video and audio of CD’s and DVD’s on the web. This creates a merger of both concepts which can realize learning at its maximum relative advantage. In considering Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences, we can integrate support tools multimedia and hypermedia into teaching and learning. This can be done in various ways. Software programs that supports tutorials, drill and practice, simulation, instructional games and problem solving can all be incorporated using an interactive approach. Students as well as teachers are motivated to learn and present information. According to Edyburn (as cited in Roblyer & Doering, 2010), the accessibility capabilities of special needs students are often challenging. Special programs are provided along with software for these students, but in order to use the programs, one must be especially skilled. Roblyer and Doering (2010), further stated that in order for hypermedia to be used effectively, some hardware are needed in order for the software to function, such as: computer with keyboard, mouse and monitor, digital cameras, scanners, video digitizers, camcorders and other video output, microphones and audio speakers. Financial resources are necessary for this system to take place. Adobe Flash Reader has become the standard for creating interactive web based animation and other software tools. Flexible learning modes exist but teachers must carefully select programs that promote higher order thinking, which are few in the case of reading and language. The response based methods are critical and students are able to use their creativity to access information. Students can also make the distinction between various texts and think critically about which is appropriate and applicable. Teachers are able to assess students based on the outcome of assigned projects while challenging them to learn independently at times. Students use the Web 2. 0, and presentation software such as Microsoft Power point Presentation to deliver work the way they understand. Hypermedia helps students to generate new ideas, raise the bar for creativity and independence and thus provide a, variety of sources which students can use to understand and interpret information, thus reaching their highest potential relative advantage. Factors Influencing the Effective Integration of Technology Gorder (2008) stated that integrating technology is not about having technology available in the classroom, but more about how teachers use technology as a tool for learning. To effectively and successfully integrate support tools, multimedia and hypermedia into teaching and learning for the highest potential relative advantage, certain factors need to be considered. Franklin (2008) outlined four factors that influence the integration of technology: availability and access to technology, teacher preparation and training, good leadership, and time. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (as cited in Franklin, 2008), the availability of classroom technology correlates to teacher use of computers. This means that when more computers are available in the classroom, teachers tend to incorporate more activities involving technology. While the average elementary classroom in the United States has two computers (NCES, as cited in Franklin, 2008), classrooms in Belize are yet to experience that luxury. Access to computers in Belizean elementary schools is very limited, often through a computer lab. Oftentimes many of these computers are outdated, or not working. The lack of hardware and software tools do very little to promote the use and integration of technology in education. Teacher preparation and training is also an important factor in the effective integration of technology. Franklin (2008) indicated that teachers who feel better prepared to use technology are more likely to have their students use technology than teachers who feel unprepared. With the advent of numerous new technological advances, more experienced teachers are feeling unprepared to face the technological world. The NCES (as cited in Franklin, 2008) reported that only one third of elementary teachers in the United States felt they were well prepared to use technology in the classroom. Gorder (2008) referred to this as a change from educating students for the industrial age, to one of educating students for the technological age. This change will require teachers to become students again, seeking assistance from fellow teachers as well as from their own students. In light of this change, Ash (2007) felt that for teachers to implement technology effectively in the classroom there needs to be some form of professional development. Ash reported that in order to meet the professional development needs of teachers, some school districts have encouraged teachers to form on-line learning communities with their colleagues where they can seek technology advice, share resources and tips. Additionally, Ash suggested having a technology specialist on staff to assist teachers with new technology as well as to provide training for teachers in the form of after school training and workshops. Pitler (2006) said that most importantly teachers need to be provided with ongoing technology professional development. Ash (2007) believed strong leadership is required to effectively integrate technology into teaching and learning and considered the principal as the key factor to ensuring the successful integration of technology into the school curriculum. Hope and Stakenas (as cited by Gosmire & Grady, 2007) suggested three primary roles for the principal as technology leader: role model, instructional leader, and visionary. They stated that principals themselves need to have a good working knowledge of technology tools and be able to use these for their own administrative and managerial duties. When principals have a good working knowledge of technology they are more committed to its importance in teaching and learning and tend to impart this to their teachers (Franklin, 2008). Furthermore, principals are the instructional leaders of the school and are primarily responsible for overseeing technology integration. As a result, principals need to have a good knowledge of technology hardware and software to be able to acquire those that best fit the needs of their school. Hope and Stakenas emphasized that the most important thing is for principals to have a vision for technology in their school. They need to have a clear understanding of how technology will be used by teachers and students to better facilitate teaching and learning. Franklin concluded that principals who provide strong leadership â€Å"help create a climate in which experimentation with technology is looked on with favour and given encouragement† (p. 55). Finally, the fourth factor that influences the integration of technology is time. Franklin (2008) believed that for technology integration to be effective it is necessary to provide the time for teachers to learn, practice, and plan how they will integrate technology into the curriculum. She stated that this might, at times, require teachers to be released from their regular classroom duties in order to facilitate this experience. Apart from the time teachers need to learn and plan for technology, students also need time to use technology. Franklin indicated that time needs to be placed in the daily schedule when students will be using technology. Schacter and Fagnano (1999) also suggested several practices to aid in the successful implementation of technology in the classroom. These include: (a) getting students involved in discussions and debates where they will be required to work with a team to evaluate their work, as well as the work of others, (b) allowing students to analyse situations and think independently through self reflection and thought, (c) getting students to design programs that encourage critical thinking, judgement, and personal involvement, (d) using project-based learning activities, (e) engaging students in contextualized and meaningful projects, and (f) teaching students how to use computers to design projects. The authors emphasized that the effective use of technology increases students’ learning, understanding, achievement and motivation as well as develops their critical thinking and problem solving skills. Conclusion Hence, it is clear that in order to integrate technology into teaching and learning for the highest potential relative advantage, it is not just about having the technology and being knowledgeable about its use and benefits, but also about having a vision and plan of how technology will be integrated into the school curriculum and providing the necessary training for teachers. Pitler (2006) stated that all the new technologies in the world will not impact student achievement if the school does not have a clear vision of how and why they will use the technology. It is important to understand that the acquisition of technology alone will not improve the quality of instruction. Day (2010) emphasizes that â€Å"the fundamental determinants of instructional quality have always been the course content, the teachers, the learning activities in which the students are engaged and the students themselves† (p. 49). Technology in Education Software Support Tools According to Rogers (2008), â€Å"the landscape of the classroom is being transformed, with technology becoming a driving force† (p. 92). In today’s classroom there are numerous software support tools available to enhance learning and cater to the needs of all learners. Roblyer and Doering (2010) presented six categories of software support tools. They listed these as: material generators, data collection and analysis, graphics, planning and organizing, research and reference, and tools for the content areas. Material generators are software tools that are used for making instructional materials such as posters, brochures, quizzes, tests, rubrics, puzzles, worksheets, games, awards, and IEPs for special education students. Many teachers regard these tools as essential to the day-to-day operation of the classroom. Wellert (2008) stated that the use of games allow teachers to directly cater to the learning style needs of the visual and tactile learners, and that games can expedite the learning process when constructed with the different learning styles in mind. Data collection and analysis software tools allow teachers to collect information about their students and closely monitor their performance and progress throughout the year. According to Roblyer and Doering (2010), the electronic grade book is preferred by many teachers because of its special feature to analyse data from tests and print reports based on the information given. Student information systems (SIS) help teachers keep account of students’ data such as attendance and test scores. Roblyer and Doering also referred to computerized testing systems which offer benefits such as immediate feedback of results. Additionally, it allows students to take tests on screens or scanned sheets. According to the authors, these simplify test scheduling because everyone does not take the test at the same time. Graphic tools consist of draw/paint programs, image editing tools, charting/graphing tools, and clip art animation, sound, video, and font collections (Roblyer & Doering, 2010). These allow teachers and students to create, illustrate, modify, and combine drawings, illustrations, clip art, pictures, charts and graphs. They also give students the opportunity to create their own designs and show them on paper or screen. Additionally, teachers and students can insert these into documents and reports to give a more professional look. Catchings and MacGregor (as cited in Roblyer & Doering, 2010) believed that these programs aid in the development of students’ visual-verbal literacy and creativity. Planning and organizing software tools entails outlining and concept mapping, software, lesson planners, and scheduling and time management tools. Outlining tools assist students in outlining their story ideas and help them to get their stories started, while the other tools help teachers organize their time and prepare for instruction. Research and reference tools such as electronic encyclopedias, atlases, and dictionaries help facilitate research. Electronic atlases and maps are useful in the classroom because students get to see and learn information being taught, and are especially helpful because they are interactive. Wellert (2008) stated that students need to have active participation and involvement in lessons that include technology. Furthermore, student engagement is vital to ensure motivation during the learning process. Finally, the last category of software support tools put forward by Roblyer and Doering (2010) is content area tools. These support teaching and learning in the different content areas. Multimedia Multimedia refers to multiple media or a combination of media. Media can be still graphics, and photographs, sound, motion video, animation, and or text items along with products used to communicate information in multiple ways. Multimedia impacts the classroom in various ways. For example it increases motivation as it offers a variety of options for the user and encourages the learner to be proactive. For students who might not be strong in written expression but have visual aptitude, multimedia offers flexible learning modes. It also fosters the development of creative and critical thinking skills as it opens up creative avenues for students to apply higher thinking skills.. For those who struggle with organizing and presenting information, multimedia offers improved writing process as students are equipped to create characters and linking dialogue to it rather than simply creating a lengthy story. Creativity is encouraged by this process. The use of multimedia also decreases the time it takes to present lengthy presentations as information is presented in chunks as oppose to monotonous reports. According to Mayer and Moreno, 1998; Moreno and Mayer, 2002 (as sited in Roblyer and Doering, 2010) learners exhibited greater comprehension and retention of learned materials when pictures were accompanied by spoken words rather than by written words. They observed that the â€Å"split attention† effect was consistent with a model of working memory that had separate visual and auditory channels. As oppose to chalk and talk which rarely engage students, the use of multimedia encourages interaction and positive immediate feedback. Students are prompted when answers are incorrect giving them the option to correct their answers. Multimedia also provides easy navigation with clearly defined procedures. It is learner controlled for those who are less experienced as well as those who are advanced in technology. Color is also used to bring certain elements to the learner’s attention. Utility provides assortment of functionalities and features necessary to accomplish their instructional tasks, while usability deals with the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of the user. Aesthetics on the other hand, represents elements of design which enhance or heightens the learner’s experience as oppose to just satisfying the pedagogical or instructional objectives. In addition (Lavie & Tractinsky, 2004; Wilson, 2005), research on emotion suggests that aesthetically pleasing objects positively influence our emotions which in turn help students to actively process material. Commercial multimedia products include instructional software such as tutorials, drills, simulations, instruction and problem solving tools. It also includes interactive storybooks and eBooks for toddler’s right up to adults. There are digital libraries, Google books, listening to books online, Grimm Fairy Tales as well as Clifford Interactive Storybooks. In addition to these, these products include reference materials such as Encarta (Encyclopedia), Almanacs, Atlases, newspapers and newsletters, collection of development resources like Clip art, Audio clips, Video clips and Animations, all of which can be used for learning. When producing power points and graphics, fancy fonts and animation can all be incorporated. Multimedia tools also provide editing systems which allows the polishing of the end product. The question about how to effectively integrate support tools, multimedia, and hypermedia into teaching and learning for the highest potential relative advantage, this question can be answered by simply choosing the right tools to meet specific needs of the audience being taught. It is no longer debatable whether or not these tools are relevant, but which tools are relevant for what and who is being taught. Hypermedia According to (Roblyer and Doering, 2010), Hypermedia is also known as â€Å"linked media†. It is a system in which information stored in various media is connected, often through the internet. Most multimedia products are also hypermedia products. There exist a synonymous connection of their uses and alternative purpose. The ability to get information using multimedia tools, from one media element to another, makes them hypermedia. There are six kinds of hypermedia formats, such as: commercial hypermedia software, presentation software, video production and editing systems, hypermedia design and development software, virtual reality environments and Web 2. 0. Hypermedia has been impacting the educational system in many ways. Students are able to attend classes in the comfort of their home. Teachers are able to peruse through a wide variety of activities to effectively and efficiently deliver lessons. Hypermedia is geared at providing multiple channels by which students are able to learn and process information. It has been stated by researchers that students who learn through verbal and visual means are better able to solve problems in comparison to those who learn only through verbal means. In using hypermedia in the classroom, it saves time. Students and teachers are able to search through multiple types of information in a short length of time, with little or no cost. It can be stressful and frustrating for those who are not fully equipped with the skills of navigating. Users can also use hypermedia to add, modify or share information. The software is designed to be easy to use and understand. The programs available can incorporate video and audio of CD’s and DVD’s on the web. This creates a merger of both concepts which can realize learning at its maximum relative advantage. In considering Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences, we can integrate support tools multimedia and hypermedia into teaching and learning. This can be done in various ways. Software programs that supports tutorials, drill and practice, simulation, instructional games and problem solving can all be incorporated using an interactive approach. Students as well as teachers are motivated to learn and present information. According to Edyburn (as cited in Roblyer & Doering, 2010), the accessibility capabilities of special needs students are often challenging. Special programs are provided along with software for these students, but in order to use the programs, one must be especially skilled. Roblyer and Doering (2010), further stated that in order for hypermedia to be used effectively, some hardware are needed in order for the software to function, such as: computer with keyboard, mouse and monitor, digital cameras, scanners, video digitizers, camcorders and other video output, microphones and audio speakers. Financial resources are necessary for this system to take place. Adobe Flash Reader has become the standard for creating interactive web based animation and other software tools. Flexible learning modes exist but teachers must carefully select programs that promote higher order thinking, which are few in the case of reading and language. The response based methods are critical and students are able to use their creativity to access information. Students can also make the distinction between various texts and think critically about which is appropriate and applicable. Teachers are able to assess students based on the outcome of assigned projects while challenging them to learn independently at times. Students use the Web 2. 0, and presentation software such as Microsoft Power point Presentation to deliver work the way they understand. Hypermedia helps students to generate new ideas, raise the bar for creativity and independence and thus provide a, variety of sources which students can use to understand and interpret information, thus reaching their highest potential relative advantage. Factors Influencing the Effective Integration of Technology Gorder (2008) stated that integrating technology is not about having technology available in the classroom, but more about how teachers use technology as a tool for learning. To effectively and successfully integrate support tools, multimedia and hypermedia into teaching and learning for the highest potential relative advantage, certain factors need to be considered. Franklin (2008) outlined four factors that influence the integration of technology: availability and access to technology, teacher preparation and training, good leadership, and time. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (as cited in Franklin, 2008), the availability of classroom technology correlates to teacher use of computers. This means that when more computers are available in the classroom, teachers tend to incorporate more activities involving technology. While the average elementary classroom in the United States has two computers (NCES, as cited in Franklin, 2008), classrooms in Belize are yet to experience that luxury. Access to computers in Belizean elementary schools is very limited, often through a computer lab. Oftentimes many of these computers are outdated, or not working. The lack of hardware and software tools do very little to promote the use and integration of technology in education. Teacher preparation and training is also an important factor in the effective integration of technology. Franklin (2008) indicated that teachers who feel better prepared to use technology are more likely to have their students use technology than teachers who feel unprepared. With the advent of numerous new technological advances, more experienced teachers are feeling unprepared to face the technological world. The NCES (as cited in Franklin, 2008) reported that only one third of elementary teachers in the United States felt they were well prepared to use technology in the classroom. Gorder (2008) referred to this as a change from educating students for the industrial age, to one of educating students for the technological age. This change will require teachers to become students again, seeking assistance from fellow teachers as well as from their own students. In light of this change, Ash (2007) felt that for teachers to implement technology effectively in the classroom there needs to be some form of professional development. Ash reported that in order to meet the professional development needs of teachers, some school districts have encouraged teachers to form on-line learning communities with their colleagues where they can seek technology advice, share resources and tips. Additionally, Ash suggested having a technology specialist on staff to assist teachers with new technology as well as to provide training for teachers in the form of after school training and workshops. Pitler (2006) said that most importantly teachers need to be provided with ongoing technology professional development. Ash (2007) believed strong leadership is required to effectively integrate technology into teaching and learning and considered the principal as the key factor to ensuring the successful integration of technology into the school curriculum. Hope and Stakenas (as cited by Gosmire & Grady, 2007) suggested three primary roles for the principal as technology leader: role model, instructional leader, and visionary. They stated that principals themselves need to have a good working knowledge of technology tools and be able to use these for their own administrative and managerial duties. When principals have a good working knowledge of technology they are more committed to its importance in teaching and learning and tend to impart this to their teachers (Franklin, 2008). Furthermore, principals are the instructional leaders of the school and are primarily responsible for overseeing technology integration. As a result, principals need to have a good knowledge of technology hardware and software to be able to acquire those that best fit the needs of their school. Hope and Stakenas emphasized that the most important thing is for principals to have a vision for technology in their school. They need to have a clear understanding of how technology will be used by teachers and students to better facilitate teaching and learning. Franklin concluded that principals who provide strong leadership â€Å"help create a climate in which experimentation with technology is looked on with favour and given encouragement† (p. 55). Finally, the fourth factor that influences the integration of technology is time. Franklin (2008) believed that for technology integration to be effective it is necessary to provide the time for teachers to learn, practice, and plan how they will integrate technology into the curriculum. She stated that this might, at times, require teachers to be released from their regular classroom duties in order to facilitate this experience. Apart from the time teachers need to learn and plan for technology, students also need time to use technology. Franklin indicated that time needs to be placed in the daily schedule when students will be using technology. Schacter and Fagnano (1999) also suggested several practices to aid in the successful implementation of technology in the classroom. These include: (a) getting students involved in discussions and debates where they will be required to work with a team to evaluate their work, as well as the work of others, (b) allowing students to analyse situations and think independently through self reflection and thought, (c) getting students to design programs that encourage critical thinking, judgement, and personal involvement, (d) using project-based learning activities, (e) engaging students in contextualized and meaningful projects, and (f) teaching students how to use computers to design projects. The authors emphasized that the effective use of technology increases students’ learning, understanding, achievement and motivation as well as develops their critical thinking and problem solving skills. Conclusion Hence, it is clear that in order to integrate technology into teaching and learning for the highest potential relative advantage, it is not just about having the technology and being knowledgeable about its use and benefits, but also about having a vision and plan of how technology will be integrated into the school curriculum and providing the necessary training for teachers. Pitler (2006) stated that all the new technologies in the world will not impact student achievement if the school does not have a clear vision of how and why they will use the technology. It is important to understand that the acquisition of technology alone will not improve the quality of instruction. Day (2010) emphasizes that â€Å"the fundamental determinants of instructional quality have always been the course content, the teachers, the learning activities in which the students are engaged and the students themselves† (p. 49).