Monday, September 30, 2019

Ideal student Essay

Students are the future hope of the country. A student is like clay which can be molded into any shape. Hence, it is very necessary that the student should be brought up and taught in the right ways. Teachers and parents are responsible for shaping the character of students. Discipline is the foremost quality of a student. He has to live with good behavior and in a discipline way. This is the time of life when the foundation of character is laid. A student without a sense of discipline is like a ship without a rudder. He should be obedient, cautious, humble and simple. He should respect his elders and gain knowledge so that he may become a good citizen. A good student should be studious. He should not only study but also let others study from him. For this he will have to be law-abiding. An ideal student should keep himself healthy by taking part in games and extra curricular activities. He should be an all rounder. He should select his friend intelligently and wisely. He should have no evil in him and let no evil tempt him. An ideal student should be any time helping and an amusing friend. He should keep the atmosphere lively by his humorous nature. He should never be passive in mind and body. He should take an active part in the activities of the school. He should be a source of inspiration for others. The school is a community and an ideal student should have good relations with his authorities and friends. He should be frank and fearless. An ideal student will admit his mistake, get it corrected and learn from it. He is fully conscious of his duties and responsibilities. He sets an example for the younger generation. An ideal student has many good qualities. He presents an ideal model of character before others such a student will be an asset to others.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Philippine vacation experiences

It's been quite a long time since I've been here, but still, the feeling never changed. It's still where my heart finds its second home -? the Philippines. We celebrated Christmas very religiously by attending predawn masses called Sambaing Gab; eat traditional food like rice cakes and having a good time with our family. The night mass starts at December 16 and lasts until the day of the Christmas. The church bells and first cockcrow awaken the people of the town to go to church and to pray for a joyful celebration of the Chrism's birth.This is indeed quite different comparing to celebrating in Italy, which is mostly about Santa Clause and giving gifts. As it continues to blow on the cold breeze of December, me and my cousins enjoyed caroling in the neighborhood. It is hoping from one house to another every night and singing Christmas songs. This serves as our bonding together and also, there is this joy that resides in Our hearts as we sing different Christmas carols. Through this, it sets our mood for some Christmas spirit. Roaming around our place, I noticed that each household were adorned with these star-shaped multistoried lanterns which they call â€Å"parole†.They say that s early as November, these were already hanged as a preparation for Christmas. After all the preparations, Niche Buena is still the much-anticipated part after the midnight mass. It is a traditional Christmas Eve feast after returning home from the mass. It was a very special occasion for me because after a couple of years, we will celebrate the Christmas Eve as a whole family. We rarely have this moment, so I will consider this as one of my best Christmas. Truly, everybody gets busy during December but me and my family never let any moment get wasted.We savor every chance that we get together through outings and exploring the beautiful spots in the place. More than that, I must say that the real essence of this season is the giving and sharing among people. It is by these mome nts that we are reminded that the love for each other is still the main center of the celebration. At the end of the day, these seasons are still about family closeness and my vacation in the Philippines is one great reminder that a strong bond among families is what makes each season worth-celebrating. Indeed, it was a cold yet warm vacation because of the love between and among us.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Library management system Essay

Introduction Library management system is an aspect or branch of information management system that keeps the records of both the library users, books in the library and the activities that is going on in the library, activities like borrowing books and returning books. Information management in general is the collection and management of information from one or more source and distribution of the information to one or more audience. This sometimes involves those who a stake in or right to that information. Management means the organization of and control over the structure, processing, and delivery of information. In short information management entails organizing retrieving acquiring and maintaining information. It is closely related to and overlapping with the practice of data management. A good library manager must be able to take of the following activities in the library; Keep records of books in the library, keep records of the library user, keep track of books borrowed by any library user, keep record of time a library user borrowed and return books and also after each day for decision making purpose, the library manager must be able to make analysis of books borrowed per day, analysis of the type of book people requested for per day and analysis of the author people read his/her book most per day. The emergence of the Internet, however, has led to the adoption of electronic catalog databases (often referred to as â€Å"web cats† or as online public access catalogs, OPACs), which allow users to search the library’s holdings from any location with internet access. This style of catalog maintenance is compatible with new types of libraries, such as digital libraries and distributed libraries, as well as older libraries that have been retrofitted. This proposed system is an offline access of library system or it doesn’t need to have an internet or web connection to run the program. It focuses on library transaction including borrowing of books, producing a library report in much accurate and easier way. In this system, the librarian doesn’t have to use a card catalog; all she has to do is search the specific name of the book, title of book, and/or author in the system. The reasons why the researcher chose to study the electronic library system are, to find out the effectiveness of the electronic library system in the place where it is implemented, to answer the problems encountered in the existing library systems and to show additional features that can be integrated for faster retrieval of data. Theoretical / Conceptual Framework An Integrated Library System (ILS), also known as library management system (LMS), is a resource planning system for a library, used to track and manage books in the library (Adebayo 2007). An ILS is usually comprised of a relational database, software to act on that database, and two graphical user interfaces (one for patrons, one for staff). Most ILS separate software functions into discrete programs called modules, which are then integrated into a unified interface. Examples of modules include: acquisitions (ordering, receiving, and invoicing materials), cataloging (classifying and indexing materials), circulation (lending materials to patron’s and receiving them back), serials (tracking magazine and newspaper and newspaper holdings), and the OPAC (Public Interface for Users). Each patron and item has a unique ID in the database that allows the ILS to track its activity. Larger libraries use an ILS to order and acquire, receive and invoice, catalog, circulate, track and shelve materials. Most sizable First World libraries use an ILS. Smaller libraries, such as private homes or non-profit organizations (e. g. churches and synagogues), often forego the expense and maintenance required to run an ILS, and instead use a library computer system. ILS was often known as library automation systems or automated system in the 1970’s and early 1980’s. Before the advent of computers, libraries usually used a card catalog to index its holdings. Computers were used to automate the card catalog, thus resorting the card catalog, keeping it up-to-date with respect to the collection, etc. Other tasks automated include checking out and checking in books, generating statistics and reports, acquisitions and subscriptions, indexing journal articles and linking to them, as well as tracking interlibrary loans. Since the late 1980’s windows and multitasking have allowed business functions to be integrated. Instead of having to open up separate applications, library staff could now use a single application with multiple function modules. As the internet grew, ILS vendors offered more functionality related to the internet. Major ILS systems now offer web-based portals where library users can log in to view their account, renew their books, and be authenticated to use online databases. Shibanda (2002) cited that integrated process of a computerized library system can keeps the track of all the books and periodicals and keeping the status updated. Apparently, there are â€Å"user IDs† and associated passwords to make an access in the system. This will keep all the information regarding the materials updated and monitored. The use of the computerized library system is a kind of technology that is popular in the developed countries. Perhaps, this is the right time for the developing countries to show any sign of development and progress even in the technological approach. A computerized library system among the universities is just a simple approach to change the approach of the schools in their one of most busy areas. Through the use of the necessary infrastructure and implementation of the process, the computerized library system can be effective. Stephen Abram (2009) said that traditionally, the library management system or integrated library system (ILS) was responsible for running libraries efficiently and effectively. Over the last few years, the role of the ILS has been expanding from meeting library needs to delivering user experience. Pandita (2004) in her paper â€Å"Collection Development in the Digital Era† examined the impact of electronic format on the collection development. She pointed out that the policy of content development needs to be worked out and re-designed. Mandal and Panda (2005) in their research paper titled â€Å"Collection Development in the Internet Age and the Need for a Consortium in the Engineering College Libraries in West Bengal: A Study† discussed the different dimensions of collection development. The existing state of library collection and infrastructural facilities of 17 engineering college libraries in West Bengal were examined. Author suggested the staff training, provision of adequate staff and funds, appropriate infrastructure in IT and a need based collection. This study requires data for books and borrowers which will be used for registration, checking records on the database, view and print book status. Output of the electronic system will be the releasing of the books, Issuance of receipt and prints other information. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Figure 1: Schema of the Study Statement of the Problem This study aims to find out the effectiveness of E – Library in the Municipal Library of Liloy, Zamboanga Del Norte during the calendar year 2012 – 2013. Specifically it intends to answer the following questions: 1. What is the status of the library system? 2. What are the problems encountered by the current library system? 3. What proposed system to be implemented? 4. What is level of functionality in terms of accuracy and speed? Significance of the Study. The study was focused only to improve the library system that helps the librarian, readers, and other concerned people in terms of borrowing books, transaction, managing data, saving records, produce reports and the time and effort statements of assumption. The electronic system manages and maintains records in a library of a certain borrower used to borrow books from a library. Transaction of books can be faster, and with the used of this system, there’s no need of manual recording by the librarian or any person who is in-charge to this system, which made the user of this system’s work lighter and convenience. The study is not intended to change all the principle details and methods of borrowing books from the library but rather to improve it in much accurate and reliable form. Scope and Delimitation: The scope of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of the computerized library system in order to support the continuous learning in various pedagogical settings. To achieve this primary goal, the study should consider the three objectives. First is to compare the existing library system from the traditional system. Second is to compare and contrast the  various schools or universities that successfully managed the computerized approach as new library. Third is to identify the weaknesses and potential threats to make a recommendation on how to strengthen the computerized library system. The study was limited on wide area networking which needs greater requirements on both system hardware and software and exclusively implemented in the Municipal of Liloy, Zamboanga del Norte. Definition of Terms In order to have clearer idea about the study, the researcher defines the following terms: Code. This pertain to the process of writing the necessary code required to develop the prototype Library Management System. LMS. Library Managements System, Software helps the users to manage a library. Database. This term mains a large, comprehensive, and significant collection of data carefully organized and recorded so that information may be derived from it. Librarian. The primary user of the system. In charge of user’s creation, book item creation, check –The one who borrow books from the library. Borrower. The one who borrow books from the library. Computerized. To enter, process, or store (data) in a computer or system of computers. Manually. Is done with the hands by human labor, not automatic. Library. A considerable collection of books kept for use, and not as merchandise. System. Is a group of elements that are integrate with the common purpose of achieving an object. Data. Is information in a form suitable for use with a computer. Report. Is a piece of information describing, or an account of certain events given or presented to sosmenone. Program Testing. Stage in program development process which the programmer is task to run and test to determine the program errors. Debugging. A process of fixing the errors in a computer program. Internet. Group of network computer connected around the globe. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES In this chapter, literature and studies are presented. These are related to library management system. These are taken from various references and all of which have bearing with this study. Literature By exploitation of the computers in access and management of information, universities can now administer the library’s operational efficiencies and organizational effectiveness. The more informative system in libraries can efficiently aid the processing of knowledge by supplying the useful information. The computerized library system in universities is expected to lessen the burden on both librarian and students in searching for the appropriate books and information. Therefore, the new library system centers in the advantages in terms of accessing, retrieving, and sharing information most especially in a technologically oriented University environment (Shibanda, 2002). The integrated process of a computerized library system can keeps the track of all the books and periodicals and keeping the status updated. Apparently, there are â€Å"user IDs† and associated passwords to make an access in the system. This will keep all the information regarding the materials updated and monitored. The use of the computerized library system is a kind of technology that is popular in the developed countries. Perhaps, this is the right time for the developing countries to show any sign of development and progress even in the technological approach. A computerized library system among the universities is just a simple approach to change the approach of the schools in their one of most busy areas. Through the use of the necessary infrastructure and implementation of the process, the computerized library system can be effective. However, the country or the universities should answer the various challenges including the interactive connections (telephone and modem), the electricity problems, and the process of accessibility and privacy issues. In building the strengths among the universities, it is foremost important to address the issues that might affect the efficiency and effectiveness of the process. The idea of the computerized library system is supported with the interactive environment of the country. This will serve as an advantage of the country to implement and negotiate the movement towards the computerized library systems (David, 1996). In the Philippines, there are many universities that openly participated in the computerized library systems which add to their value of promoting the learning. However, it is obvious that most of the universities that managed this new system are private or semi-private institutions. The centralized reason that might contribute in this system is the large investments that the universities bound to provide. If all of the universities in the country successfully provide the library computerization, there is a possibility to place the learning in a most accessible and easiest way. Stephen Abram (2009) said that traditionally, the library management system or integrated library system (ILS) was responsible for running libraries efficiently and effectively. Over the last few years, the role of the ILS has been expanding from meeting library needs to delivering user experience. Change has been focused on innovation in user experience. That is a challenge because libraries vary and their online users and physical users are different. For example, in a public library the physical users tend to be transaction-focused or those with less IT access or experience. In contrast, the online users of public libraries tend to be more highly educated and computer literate. In academic libraries, the online access comes from places such as student housing while those who come into the physical library tend to have more complex problems and need help with filtering rather than finding information. Elisabeth Robson (2009) pointed out that, the catalogue has become a way to pull together disparate resources, including commercial resources and web links. Library management systems also allow circulation, including check in/check-out and enable libraries to purchase materials and track where they are. One of the biggest user requirements is usability. It has to be straightforward and has to do some of the searching for the user. It’s amazing how important the look and feel of the interface is. Users want simple interfaces with simple search boxes that do a lot behind the scenes – much like they are used to with Google. Librarians also say that users want to replicate the functionality that they see elsewhere. For example, when they search the catalogue they want to be able to see reviews of the items they are interested in before they borrow them. Oren Beit-Arie (2009) discussed that, many libraries are at a crossroads, reevaluating their businesses, missions and operations. The digital world will dominate more and more in the future, because of both mass digitization and born-digital content. Global economics also have an impact. Libraries want to do more with less where it matters. At the same time, the LMS is not just about the future and digital content but also about other types of content including physical. The move to digital doesn’t mean that libraries won’t have any physical resources to manage. They need to work with tools that support a hybrid environment. Good linking is very important. Our Primo tool was the first link resolver for the research community. Link resolvers enable users to click on a link and get to the article. It doesn’t sound complicated but it is, because of the range of access methods available over the web. The article can be available in several places. Which is best for the users depends on what subscriptions have been negotiated by their institution. It is a complicated web of many-to-many connections. Marshall Breeding (2011) pointed out that, in this time of tight budgets where libraries face difficult decisions regarding how to invest their technology resources, it’s helpful to have data regarding how libraries perceive the quality of their automation systems and the companies that support them. This report, based on survey responses from over two thousands libraries, aims to give some measure of how libraries perceive their current environment and probes at their inclinations for the future. Some libraries may refer to the results of this survey as they formulate technology strategies or even consider specific products. I urge libraries not to base any decision solely on this report. While it reflects the responses of a large number of libraries using these products, I hope this survey serves more as an instrument to guide what questions that a library might bring up in their considerations and not to make premature conclusions based on subjective responses. Especially for libraries with more complex needs, it’s unrealistic to expect satisfaction scores at the very top of the rankings. Large and complex libraries exercise all aspects of an automation system and at any given time may have outstanding issues that would naturally result in survey responses short of the highest marks. The survey results also aim to provide useful information to the companies involved in the library automation industry. While each company likely performs its own measures of client satisfaction, this survey may show perceptions in different ways. I hope that the rankings in each category and the published comments provide useful information to help each of the companies hone in on problem areas and make any needed adjustments to their support procedures or product directions. This year marks the fourth time that I’ve carried out this survey. Each year I have received around 2,000 responses, and a few more libraries responded this year than in any of the previous iterations. In very broad terms, the survey results are similar this year, but with some interesting new trends. Al-Ansari and Al-Enezi (2001) conducted a study to assess the current status of health sciences libraries in Kuwait. Study was titled 16 â€Å"Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait: A Survey of Their Resources, Facilities, and Services†. Library facilities, use of IT, information services and co-operation were the various facets explored. Survey revealed that majority of the library staff was non-professional. Libraries were offering only basic information services and a significant number of libraries were not automated. Joshi (2001) â€Å"Veterinary College Libraries in Maharashtra. † Information was gathered about libraries through questionnaire. Book collection was found inadequate to meet information needs of the users and its growth was very slow. Journal subscription was not satisfactory, libraries were understaffed. Author recommended that Indian Council for Agricultural Research and Agricultural Universities should regularly organize orientation programmes for librarians. Similarly, Veer (2004) carried out a study titled â€Å"College of Education Libraries in Maharashtra: A Survey. † It is an unpublished Ph. D. thesis. Gautam and Srivastava (2006) examined the prevailing position of documentation and information services of libraries of 30 agricultural universities in India under title â€Å"State-of-the-Art of Documentation and Information Services in SAU Libraries in India†. It had been found that all libraries were providing CAS and bibliographical services. Adebayo (2007) conducted a study to examine the implementation of library service standards in the colleges of education in Nigeria under name â€Å"Library Services Standards Implemented in Colleges of Education in Nigeria†. Data was collected through structured questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that libraries were rendering basic services as recommended by National Commissions for Colleges of Education. These were not providing indexing and abstracting services. Partap (2007) conducted a survey of the libraries of 18 colleges of education in 3 districts of Punjab. He found that collection size of the libraries varied considerably and comparatively older colleges had large collections. Majority of the libraries were being kept open for 6 to 7 hours a day. He suggested for the introduction of user education programme and stressed on the need to increase the range and depth of collection and services. Sujatha and Mudhol (2009) in the paper titled â€Å"Evaluation of Electronic Information Services in the Fisheries College Libraries in South India: A Study† described the electronic information services in four fisheries college libraries. Authors also discussed the challenges the libraries and information centers were facing. Thornton (2000) â€Å"Impact of Electronic Resources on Collection Development, the Roles of Librarians, and Library Consortia†. Study was conducted to find the impact of electronic resources and the 21 Internet on collection development and discuss the changing role of librarians, library co-operation and collection development. It had been concluded that consortia will become more important sources in electronic information world. Pandita (2004) in her paper â€Å"Collection Development in the Digital Era† examined the impact of electronic format on the collection development. She pointed out that the policy of content development needs to be worked out and re-designed. Mandal and Panda (2005) in their research paper titled â€Å"Collection Development in the Internet Age and the Need for a Consortium in the Engineering College Libraries in West Bengal: A Study† discussed the different dimensions of collection development. The existing state of library collection and infrastructural facilities of 17 engineering college libraries in West Bengal were examined. Author suggested the staff training, provision of adequate staff and funds, appropriate infrastructure in IT and a need based collection. Mulla and Chandrashekara (2006) â€Å"E-Resources and Services in Engineering College Libraries – A Case Study†. Study was conducted to examine the efforts made by the engineering college libraries in Karnataka to build electronic resources. Results of the study revealed that collection and service infrastructure of the libraries in sampled regions were not up to the mark and libraries were struggling to build digital collection and in disseminating digital information due to lack of ICT infrastructure, IT trained manpower and paucity of finances, etc. 22 Adekanmbi and Boadi (2008) in study titled, â€Å"Problems of Developing Library Collections: A Study of Colleges of Education Libraries in Botswana† ascertained the availability and use of collection development policies in the college of education  libraries, in Botswana. In addition to using questionnaires, interviews were conducted to gather information from senior librarians, deputy principals of colleges and board of the affiliated institutions of the University of Botswana. Study brought to notice that majority of the libraries did not have collection development policies. Lack of constant training for librarians, inadequate staff, lack of support from administration and unavailability of collection development policies were some of the major problems found. It was further found that majority of the libraries did not involve their users in formulation of policies and did not implement these for collection development. Study revealed the need to train librarians on collection development. Mary and Sankar (2008) â€Å"Collection Evaluation of PSN College of Engineering and Technology Library and PET Engineering College Library in Tirunelveli District†. Authors described the various techniques of evaluating the document collection in academic libraries and evaluated the collection development practices of two engineering colleges. Sharma et al. (2008) evaluated the collection development in libraries of 38 engineering colleges of Orissa under title â€Å"Collection Management of Engineering College Libraries of Orissa: An Evaluative Study†. Information was collected from libraries using questionnaires. 23 Study concluded that growing dissatisfaction of the users arising from non-availability of needed documents and lack of provision of services could be boiled down to some extent, by rendering at least CAS or current contents or information about latest addition to users. Mallaiah and Gowda (2009) in paper â€Å"Collection Development inMangalore University Library: A User Study† discussed the usefulnessof collection development in a university library and attempted to findwhether the UGC-INFONET E-journals were meeting the users information needs. Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents and describes the research design, research environment, research instrument and the research procedure. Research Design The study utilized a description method reviewing a library database as basis to come up with the design on prototype Library Management System. The researcher decided to use Microsoft Visual Basic 6. 0 as the programming language in the entire system and Microsoft Access as the database wherein it will store the records of the borrower’s, books etc. Research Environment This research is focused at Municipal library of Liloy, Zamboanga Del Norte. Liloy is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines. It embraces 37 barangays with a total land area of 12,843 hectares with a total estimated population of 36,948 in 1995. It is mainly as agricultural community whose existing economy relies mostly on crop production such us corn, rice, coconuts, peanuts, and root crops. Liloy is a fishing ground of the northwestern towns of the province of Zamboanga. It is also known as â€Å"The Peanut Capital of ZaNorte†. Liloy is one of the most promising of the twelve towns of the 3rd Congressional District of Zamboanga del Norte. It was once a barrio of Municipality of Sindangan. It was created and become a duly constituted municipal corporation by virtue of Executive Order No. 469 issued by President Elpidio Quirino on August 22, 1951 but was unorganized and inaugurated on December 16, of the same year. [1] A huge portion of the territorial jurisdiction of Liloy had been taken away as a result of the creation and separation of Salug in 1959 and later in Tampilisan in 1978. Now the total land area is only 12,843 hectares, seventy-eight percent of the land area is agricultural planted to coconuts, corn, rice, and root crop. Residential area is sixty-five (65) hectares. Commercial area at present is nine (9) hectares; Industrial area is found in Barangay Timan and Sta. Cruz with a total land area of (10); institutional land is fifty (50) hectares and the rest comprise the open space and road right of – way. What may be considered urban land according to the records in the assessor’s office are eight hundred sixty hectares and this increasing very fast with the approaching full operation of Liloy’s wharf. Map of Liloy, Zamboanga Del Norte Research Instrument There where two sets of sources of data which will be used in this study: The borrower’s data which include the borrower’s ID, Borrowers name, Place and contact. And the book data which include the books no. ISBN, book title, author, category and the year it has been published. Research Procedure The procedure of the study was, the researcher secured permission from the Municipal library, Interviewed library staff and gathered important data’s to be use in the study, then the next logical steps followed, The researcher also analyzed and designed the solution for the system, coded the solution into a programming language, tested the running system and prepared detailed specification of the study for the benefit of the primary user of the system. BIBLIOGRAPHY Achonna, A. U.  (2008), â€Å"Awareness, Access and Usage of EJournal Resources of the Library, by the Students of Yaba College of Technology, Yaba –Lagos Nigeria†, Samaru Journal of Information Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, PP. 26-34. Available from http://www. ajol. info/viewarticle. php? jid=335&id= 44510&layout=abstract (06-03-10). Adebayo, E. L. (2007), â€Å"Library Services Standards Implemented in Colleges of Education in Nigeria†, Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 2, PP. 279-281. Available from http://medwelljournals. com/fulltext/pjss/2007/279-281. pdf (18-01-10). Adekanmbi, Arinola Rebecca; and Boadi, Benzies Y.(2008), â€Å"Problems of Developing Library Collections: A Study of Colleges of Education Libraries in Botswana†, Information Development, Vol. 24, No. 4, PP. 275-288. Available from http://cat. inist. fr/ ? aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=20877276 (14-05-09). Adikata, Adnan Ali; and Anwar, Mumtaz A. (2006), â€Å"Student Library Use: A Study of Faculty Perceptions in a Malaysian University†, Library Review, Vol. 55, No. 2, PP. 106-119. Available from http://www. emeraldinsight. com/10. 1108/ 00242530610649602 (20-02-09). Agaba, D. ; Kigogo-Bukenya, I. M. N. ; and Nyumba, J. B. (2004), â€Å"Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Academic Staff at Makerere University†, University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, PP. 18-28. Available from http://www. ajol. info/viewarticle. php? jid=164&id=16357&layout =abstract (02-03-10). Ahmad, Moin; and Haridasan, Sudharma (2006), â€Å"Use of Periodicals by the Scholars at National Library of Veterinary Sciences: A User’s Survey†, IASLIC Bulletin, Vol. 51, No. 2, PP. 05-17. Al-Ansari, Husain A. ; and Al-Enezi, Sana (2001), â€Å"Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait: A Survey of Their Resources, Facilities, and Services†, Bull Med Libr Assoc., Vol. 89, No. 3, PP. 287-293. Available from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/ articles/PMC34562/ (24-02-10). Anasi, S. (2006), â€Å"Internet Use Pattern of Undergraduate Students at the University of Lagos, Nigeria†, University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1&2, PP. 1-15. Available from http://www. ajol. info/viewarticle. php? jid=164&id=37030& layout=abstract (17-01-10). Atakan, Cemal; Atilgan, Dogan; Bayram, Ozlem; and Arslantekin, Sacit (2008), â€Å"An Evaluation of the Second Survey on Electronic Databases Usage at Ankara University Digital Library†, The Electronic Library, Vol. 26, No. 2, PP. 249-259. Available from http://eprints. rclis. org/14501/ (22-03-09). Atilgan, Dogan; and Bayran, Ozlem (2006), â€Å"An Evaluation of Faculty Use of Digital Library at Ankara University, Turkey†, The Journal of Academic Librarianship, Vol. 32, No. 1, PP. 86-93. Bansode, Sadanand Y. ; and Pujar, Shamprasad M. (2008), â€Å"Use of Internet by Research Scholars at Shivaji University, Kohlapur†, Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol. 55, No. 2, PP. 123-126. Biradar, B. S. ; Kumar, P. Dharani; and Mahesh, Y. (2009). â€Å"Use of Information Sources and Services in Library of Agriculture Science College, Shimoga: A Case Study†, Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol. 56, No. 2, PP. 63-68. Carr, Reg (2006), â€Å"What Users Want: An Academic ‘Hybrid’ Library Perspective†, Ariadne, No. 46. Available from http://www. ariadne. ac. uk/issue46/carr/intro. html (23-03-09). and Lochhart, Brian (2005), â€Å"Library User Survey: Resources, Facilities and Circulation Service†, Report on survey results. Available from http://www. paradisevalley. edu/library/assessment/LibraryUserSurvey Results. pdf (01-02-09). Choukhande Vaishali G.; and Kumar, P. S. G. (2004), â€Å"Analytical Study of Information Needs and Use Pattern of Faculty Members and Research Scholars of Amravati University†, ILA Bulletin, Vol. 40, No. 3, PP. 23-31. Chowdappa, N. ; Chandrashekara, M. ; and Ramasesh, C. P. (2009) â€Å"Impact of Electronic Information Sources on the Academic Users in Mysore: An Analytical Study†, SRELS Journal of Information Management, Vol. 46, No. 2, PP. 155-162. 77 Fatima, Nishat; and Ahmad, Naved (2008), â€Å"Information Seeking Behaviour of the Students at Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University: A Survey†, Annals of Library and Information Studies.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Why do you think Fr. Lawton says the journey to be oneself seems the Essay - 3

Why do you think Fr. Lawton says the journey to be oneself seems the riskiest of all journeys What risks lie ahead in your college career as you embark on th - Essay Example Choosing friends with a degree of discrimination, such as those who share the same priorities as I is essentially accomplished by the same methodology as in high school. Nervous anticipation is probably the best description for the feeling, meeting new people from far-off places, hoping my background either matches or complements theirs. Leaving the protective and structured home-life is the greatest adjustment, at least for me; therefore, the most frightening because the pitfalls related to the unknown are the largest and easiest to fall into. Everyone knows at least an overview of a similar story which was related to me by my parents on many occasions. Many want to get as far away from their parents and home town as possible and others want the security home provides while being allowed to make their own choices, in other words, to have their cake and eat it to. Finally the day comes when they leave the nest to embark on the great adventure that is life. Nearly to a person, once they have flown, they lament about the carefree days of childhood when there were no bills to pay, were not forced to discipline themselves and if a problem arose, they could just call mom or dad and they would magically fix it. Instead of having to grudgingly get up every morning to an annoying alarm bell and eat cold pizza for breakfast, as children, mother came in, opened up the drapes then returned as often as need to gently awaken you as the smell of a hot, nutritious breakfast tempted you to life. Freedom is a two-edged sword, a fact of lif e that is generally shockingly discovered only after leaving home. Living away from home is great but it has its downsides as well. That first month away from home is truly a liberating feeling. You can to whatever you want on a whim and have to answer to no one. You can eat ice cream for breakfast at the crack of noon when you wake, come home when the party is over for a change and watch whatever disgusting

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Careers in the EPA Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Careers in the EPA - Research Proposal Example the environmental impacts of pollutive industries led to a widespread call for sustainable development which takes into account the environmental and social aspects of economic development; an offshoot is the requirement of environmental impact assessments for development projects deemed to cause substantial ecological impacts. Large dams were subjected to review particularly as dams inadvertently alter a stream’s morphology, and subsequently the surrounding landscape as well as its biota, which several studies contend. Large dams inundate a large area and the environmental repercussions redound to adjacent ecosystems. An analysis of the environmental effects of dams as obtained by scientific studies is the objective of this report. Specifically, this paper proposes to assess the available research base on the environmental impacts of dams; the methods applied to obtain data on environmental effects; and the implications of the revealed impacts on dam development and management in the context of sustainable development. Data sources will include the review of selected publications on the positive and negative effects of dams on the geophysical environment and on the affected biota, and analyses of impact assessment studies. This evaluation and studies of the same nature are significant, urgent, and timely because it is only recently that the full impacts of dams have been felt due to the compounding nature of such effects. Looking at this effects from various perspectives is also relevant because there are varied scopes a dam alters the environment – global, regional, and local. Especially where local impacts are considered, one dam’s effect does not necessarily mean the same effect on another owing to the differences in their biologic and geographic components. Burke, M., Jorde, K., & Buffington, J.M. (2009). Application of a hierarchal framework for assessing environmental impacts of dam operation: Changes in streamflow, bed mobility, and

CHOOSE ONE QUESTIONS FROM THE 5 QUESTIONS ON THE INSTRUCTION LIST Essay

CHOOSE ONE QUESTIONS FROM THE 5 QUESTIONS ON THE INSTRUCTION LIST - Essay Example The opinion of economists have varied on this issue regarding the considerable of the GDP is the appropriate measure to understand the well-being of the nation. While most of the economists have relied on this economic indicator as the main determinant of the standard of living, the others have differed stating that the other intangible and tangible factors like education, health as well as ecological environment to be important factors as well. Simon Kuznets who framed the term GDP even warned that the measure is not an appropriate indicator of the well-being of the nation (Kuznets, 1934). Thus is clear that the GDP was never devised to measure the well-being of nations. With the occurrence of the Bretton Woods conference this measure started being used widely in most of the nations of the world since 1944. GDP as an economic indicator The Gross Domestic Product of a country is the sum of the goods and services of the country taken at the market value. In order to understand the con cept of GDP it is important to know how the GDP of a nation is arrived at (Landefeld, 2008). There are a variety of ways in which the GDP of a country can be measured. The product approach measures GDP by summing the total production of all the enterprises during a definite span of time. Thus the value added of all the final products in a year minus the sum of the value added of the intermediate products gives the GDP of the economy. On the other hand, the expenditure approach considers the sum of the aggregate consumption expenditure, investment expenditure, government expenditure as well as the net exports of the economy. The circular flow diagram provides an idea about the income and expenditure flow in the economy that takes place involving the individuals, firms as well as the government. Therefore GDP measures the flow of the goods and the services that takes place in an economy. The income approach however calculates the sum of the total income of the individuals the firms as well as the government in the economy. From the various approaches it is clear that during the calculation of the GDP the monetary values are taken and hence no other intangible aspect could be captured by the GDP. In all these cases only the computation of the However in most cases it is considered that if the economic condition of the people improves the people of the economy would be better off. Thus it is not an ideal measure of the standard of living of the economy. Defects in GDP as a measure of the well-being of the economy The economic system is a subsystem of a larger system that drives the world. There are ecological, political as well as social systems which are intertwined. The effects of each of these systems influence each other and one cannot be thought of independently without thinking about the other. The economic system in a society can run only in connection with the other systems and depends on the other systems to a large extent. For example, in order to carry out the production in a factory system it is important to take the help of the natural resources as well as the human capital. Along with that the incorporation of the knowhow is also important. Hence the entire economic activity of production needs the intangible resources along with the tangible resources.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Sould the Soviet Union Be Regarded As a Socialist, Communist or Essay

Sould the Soviet Union Be Regarded As a Socialist, Communist or Totalitarian State - Essay Example This paper will discuss whether the Soviet Union should be regarded as a socialist, communist or a totalitarian state. Socialist State A socialist state is a state that practices economics under which productive properties such as corporations are wholly owned by the state. It is the state that determines everything that takes place in these companies. In this regard, in a socialist state, the economic systems consist of well organized production which directly satisfies the economic requirements and needs of the people so that the products and services would then be produced for consumption instead of for individual profit. In a socialist state, the political system is composed of many arrays of political philosophies. These include revolutionary socialism and reformism (Gonner 2010). Communist state A communist state is one in which the government is in charge of the overall economy of the state. Under this system of government, a single party dominates the political system. It dif fers from the socialist state in that with the communist state, people in common have control over property. The communist state is based on a system that everybody irrespective of place, class or country has the power to own factories, tools and farms used in the production of goods and services. Therefore, there is no private ownership of property in the communist state. ... This is evident in counties like France, Italy and India (Pipes 1997). Totalitarian State A totalitarian state is that system of government under which the government recognizes no limit to its jurisdictions, and tends to dictate every aspect of private and public life. Totalitarian states maintain political control through propaganda campaigns which in most cases spread through the state controlled media (Adler and Pouwels 2011 p.576). It is a single party rule marked by control over the economy, political repression and personality cultism. This system of government restricts freedom of expression, practices mass surveillance, and usually unleashes terror to intimidate those who are opposed to the powers that be. This system has been seen in Italy, and Nazi German. Adler and Pouwels (2011 p.575) note that the ideology in totalitarian states is distinctive, mobilizing, and monolithic in nature. Another feature prominent in this kind of system is state control of the overall economy done through preponderance of government ownership of the means of production. The Form of Government in the Soviet Union Harding, Political Studies Association of the United Kingdom, and the Communist Politics Group (1984 p.63) note that in the Soviet Union, institutional rivalry was prevalent. In this case, state institutions and some political parties had common interests which, sometimes, differing from those of other parties and state institutions. Localism and departmentalism existed within the governance structure (Harding, Political studies association of the United Kingdom and the Communist Politics Group 1984 p.63). Convert competition for political office done on the basis of cabinet politics was also prominent in the system. Harding, Political Studies Association of

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Organizational Buyer Behavior Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Organizational Buyer Behavior - Essay Example A corresponding product specification is either developed or searched. Then Comes the step of searching for a supplier who can provide goods and / or services for the requirement. The suppliers are then sought for proposing the solutions for the needs of products or service. Based on Proposals a Supplier is selected. An Order routine is finalized. Performance is reviewed. Buying Center: There are often multiple decision makers involved in organizational purchases. This requires that the marketer is aware of the needs of the various Players involved in making decisions. Users: A user is the end consumer of a product. Influencers: An influencer is someone who has influence over what is purchased. Deciders: A decider is someone who ultimately has authority if or what to purchase. Buyers: A buyer is someone who arranges the transaction. Gatekeepers: A gatekeeper could include anyone in the organization who can control the flow of information. Factors influencing Industrial Buyer Behavior (Telecommunication) There are various factors which influence the Buyer Behavior. Following are the factors which primarily influence the selection of a Supplier for leading telecom companies in Telecommunication market: 1. Data on reliability of the product : Proof of reliability about the suppliers company and its transmission products is of utmost importance. 2. Technical capability: the kind of technical capabilities to accommodate future product developments and enhancements also plays an important role in deciding about the supplier. 3. Ease of Maintance: Most of the Telecom companies require pre usage steps to be done by the network providers (suppliers of the network) and therefore might have significant amount of... 4. Ease of Operation and Use: The supplier should be well equipped to provide the Know-how on operations and use and should also have inbuilt people and technical resources to accommodate any operations related request.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Correlation of the light scattering properties of transparent Dissertation

Correlation of the light scattering properties of transparent conducting oxides to PV efficiency - Dissertation Example As the results show that, there is a difference between the thicknesses of the two samples, the difference between thicknesses of the two samples is due to the passes, as 236 has 18 passes and 238 has 20 passes. The more the number of passes the more will be the thickness of the surface. At 870 nm wavelength of light, the transmission remains at 79.7%, Hf (Io) is 2.5%, Hf (T) is 3.1%, Hr (Io) is 1.9%, Hr (Sp) is 40.5%, Is remains at 2.8% while absorption is 15.5%. As the wavelength decreases to 627 nm, the transmission increases to 80.3%, Hf (Io) increases to 4.6%, Hf (T) increases to 5.7%, Is increases to 9.2% while Hr (Io) decreases to 1.4%, Hr (Sp) decreases to 13.0% and absorption decreases to 9.2%. As the wavelength decreases to 530 nm, the transmission decreases to 77.9%, Is decreases to 8.3% while Hf (Io) increases to 7.1%, Hf (T) increases to 9.1%, Hr (Io) increases to 2.1%, Hr (Sp) increases to 20.0% and absorption increases to 11.7%. As the wavelength decreases to 455 nm, the transmission decreases to 74.3%, Is decreases to 5.1% while Hf (Io) increases to 13.1%, Hf (T) increases to 17.6%, Hr (Io) increases to 4.2%, Hr (Sp) increases to 45.0% and absorption increases to 16.4%.... As the wavelength decreases to 455 nm, the transmission decreases to 74.3%, Hf (Io) increases to 17.8%, Hf (T) increases to 24.0%, Hr (Io) increases to 5.7%, Hr (Sp) increases to 59.0%, absorption increases to 16.1% while Is decreases to 4.0%. And for sample 238 Wavelength Transmission Hf (Io) Hf (T) Hr (Io) Hr (Sp) Is Abs 870 82.4% 2.0% 2.4% 1.5% 11.2% 11.5% 4.6% 627 81.1% 6.3% 7.8% 2.9% 28.6% 7.3% 8.7% 530 78.0% 10.2% 13.0% 3.4% 34.8% 6.4% 12.3% 455 74.3% 17.8% 24.0% 5.7% 59.0% 4.0% 16.1% B- Transmission as a function of wavelength: For sample 238, the transmission is directly proportion to the wavelength of the projected light. As the wavelength increases, the percentage transmission increases but a rapid increase in the percentage transmission can be seen by the projection of light from wavelength of 455nm to 627nm. But for the sample 236, the percentage transmission increases in response to the light projection having wavelength from 455nm to 627nm and from 627nm to 870nm, the p ercentage transmission decreases from 80.2% to 79.8%. The little decrease in the percentage transmission provides great characteristics to indentify the material. Figure show transmission with respect to wavelength for sample 238. Figure show transmission with respect to wavelength for sample 236. C- Summery The thickness of the thin film influences the percentage transmission. As the sample 238 has less thickness as compared to the sample 236. The efficiency in terms of percentage transmission for the sample 238 is more than the sample 236. With the help of optical scattering system, which utilizes different wavelengths of light to analyze the optical properties of the thin film, it

Sunday, September 22, 2019

IVe Seen the Promise Land Essay Example for Free

IVe Seen the Promise Land Essay Through understanding of his speeches and similar past leaders such as Moses and Jesus, it is clear how Dr. King established himself as the leader of the civil rights movement and his vision and strength led many to a better life filled with the freedoms that they had yearned for. The opening of this speech is inspirational yet it is also somewhat unexpected when put in the context of his other more famous works. When asked by God what age he would like to live in, he describes some of the most famous and wondrous places of all time, such as Ancient Greece or the Renaissance. Then, with a powerful swoop in his voice, he says: Strangely enough, I would turn to the Almighty, and say, ‘If you allow me to live just a few years in the second half of the 20th century, I will be happy. ’ Now thats a strange statement to make, because the world is all messed up. The nation is sick. Trouble is in the land; confusion all around. Thats a strange statement. But I know, somehow, that only when it is dark enough can you see the stars. Martin Luther King Jr. knew that the time had come to finally address the issues that had been conflicted within him as well as countless others. He states, â€Å"But now, no longer can they just talk about it. It is no longer a choice between violence and nonviolence in this world; its nonviolence or nonexistence. † He continued his speech by delivering messages from Jesus and various biblical passages to show why it is so important that they continued to be pushed forth and not remain idle. Even after their protest in Memphis they needed to keep marching forward, literally and figuratively. This speech was not only inspiring for the civil rights movements, but can also be used as an inspiration and a guideline to overcome any injustice that can be inflicted onto someone. Dr. King believed that when men and women had the mission of doing God’s will and standing up for what is right, that this would allow them to no longer fear death. Once you have conquered those who had at one point unjustly conquered you, then you are free. In addition to all the things Dr. King believed were needed to reach the â€Å"Promised Land†, the most important thing, though not directly stated by King, was the presence of an innate and inspirational leader who has a clear vision and the ability to express and correctly assert that vision onto those who want to quell injustice, along with the courage to fight against it himself. When you look at the difference between successful and also failed campaigns against injustice, the one thing that is always remembered is that in successful ones there was a leader who rallied his people. Moses was determined to lead the slaves out of Egypt and accomplished it by uniting them with his cause. Another example is Abraham Lincoln when he organized those around him and passed the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. King Jr. embodied everything that Moses and Abraham Lincoln did for their people, and then some. Without him, the civil rights movement very well could have died down and the world would not be where it is at today. With this in mind, there are 3 key moments in Dr. King’s life that made him into the visionary who took on all the arduous tasks that were placed before him. First is the time he spent in Birmingham Jail and the letter he wrote. â€Å"Human progress†¦it comes through the tireless efforts of men willing to be coworkers with God, and without this hard work, time itself becomes an ally of the forces of social stagnation. This showed that he was willing to fight alongside his people and endure anything that they did, and that he would go to the greatest of lengths to make his point. The second and his most famous speech, â€Å"I Have a Dream†, delivered on August 28, 1963, not only sparked a fire under those who had already been involved, but additionally enlisted those who may not have had previously agreed with his beliefs or thought that change was not possible. It also gained global media attention and exposed his brilliance, showing what he truly envisioned for the future of his country. The third and final moment was his death the day after delivering his speech â€Å"I See the Promised Land†. His martyrdom was a symbol to all that things needed to, and were going to, change. From that very speech given in Memphis, he preached: Well, I dont know what will happen now. Weve got some difficult days ahead. But it really doesnt matter with me now, because Ive been to the mountaintop. And I dont mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But Im not concerned about that now. I just want to do Gods will. And Hes allowed me to go up to the mountain. And Ive looked over. And Ive seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land! In his speech â€Å"I’ve Been to the Mountaintop†, King delved into the current status of the civil rights movement and how he saw that the future was bright, as long as people continued to persevere in the face of adversity, and did not allow the opposition to deter them. He believed that they had come too far to let it slip away, and even without him as their leader he knows they can accomplish it. As with all other successful movements, a leader who is extremely persuasive, motivational, and is willing to do anything for what he believes in is key. For Dr. King, there were three crucial moments in his life that shaped him to become such, and they are: his prison time and letter from Birmingham Jail, his â€Å"I Have a Dream† speech, and his martyrdom. These not only made him the face and leader of the civil rights movement, but arguably the greatest and most influential leader in history. Bibliography King, Martin Luther Jr. â€Å"I’ve Been to the Mountaintop. Speech, Memphis, Tennessee, April 3, 1968. American Rhetoric. http://www. americanrhetoric. com/speeches/mlkivebeentothemountaintop. htm King, Martin Luther Jr. â€Å"Letter From Birmingham Jail. † (letter, Birmingham, Alabama, April 16, 1963. African Studies Center-University of Pennsylvania, http://www. africa. upenn. edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham. html [ 1 ]. Martin Luther King Jr. ,  "I’ve Been to the Mountaintop† (speech, Memphis, Tennessee, April 3, 1968), American Rhetoric, http://www. mericanrhetoric. com/speeches/mlkivebeentothemountaintop. htm [ 2 ]. King Jr. , â€Å"I’ve Been to the Mountaintop† (April 3, 1968) [ 3 ]. Martin Luther King Jr. , â€Å"Letter From Birmingham Jail† (letter, Birmingham, Alabama, April 16, 1963), African Studies Center-University of Pennsylvania, http://www. africa. upenn. edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham. html [ 4 ]. Martin Luther King Jr. , â€Å"I’ve Been to the Mountaintop† (speech, Memphis, Tennessee, April 3, 1968), American Rhetoric, http://www. americanrhetoric. com/speeches/mlkivebeentothemountaintop. htm

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Bull Riding injury Risks

Bull Riding injury Risks Toughest Sport on Dirt Bull riding is an extreme sport with serious life threatening risks but have little restriction in the safety equipment that is needed to protect these athletes. Hockey, football, and even baseball all have been mandated to wear safety helmet to protect them from injury. For newer extreme sports, like snowboarding and skateboarding, the use of a helmet is rarely debated anymore. Every time out of the chute, bull riders face danger as real as the horns, hoofs and hard heads of bulls that can weigh a ton or more.(usatoday) Professional bull riders should meet the same safety gear requirements as any other contact sport. Trying to hold on to the rope and not be tossed like a rag doll on a back of a bull for eight seconds is more dangerous than playing hockey or football, in which these sports require helmets. When it comes to helmets, this little piece of foam and plastic can save a bull riders life. Just training for this sport can be disastrous The nature of this sport is brutal and is not biased. Any rider can be hurt. Although helmets are fairly new and maybe uncomfortable head and spinal injuries can be prevented with their use. No athlete in any sport can stand repeated concussions. In bull riding there are three major times when head injuries can occur. A bull rider can be jerked tossed forward and slam his head on a bulls horns. If the rider reaches eight second dismounting can be hazardous. They could get their hand tied up in the rope that is around the bull and be stomped while trying to get the rider loose. A rider can be violently thrown in the air and dropped to the hard dirt. It is unpredictable how their head is going to land and absorb the shock of the impact.   It is common sense that we use our brain for thinking and day to day body functions, without it we would just be in a vegetative state Since we do all our thinking with our brains and our brains are housed in our heads, we should do everything we can to protect this valuable asset. Wearing a helmet should become mandatory soon. It only makes sense to protect something as delicate and vulnerable as ones head. Rodeo, a sport in which the cowboy hat is as much an icon as a bucking bronco, has been reluctant to require its riders to wear helmets.(Brown) Lee Akin experienced the consequences fist hand of not wearing a helmet. When a bull weighing nearly a ton stepped on Lee Akins head one year ago at an Alabama rodeo, doctors didnt think the four-time PBR finalist would live. (Godfrey)  Another professional bull rider, Jerome Davis, met his fate in the fall of 1997. He crashed into the bull. Davis was jerked back and hit his head against the animal. He  was knocked unconscious and fell to the ground head first. The impact caused a  fracture/dislocation of the seventh vertebrae at the base of his neck. The sixth vertebrae  exploded and shattered. He was paralyzed from the neck down.( Hollen) When it comes to injuries A study of nearly 2,000 professional rodeo events between 1981 and 2005 found that half  of all injuries occurred during bull riding. Knee and shoulder injuries are most common,  according to Downey, but most alarming are the head injuries. Concussions account for  nearly 9 percent of all bull riding injuries, he notes.( Rueters) Bull riders cannot miss an event even if their injuries are minor but need time to heal. When a bull rider gets injured and cannot compete, he falls down in his rankings, risking his title and income. So knowing that, they continue to compete with concussions and other broken or dislocated body parts. As for the cowboys who do wear a helmet longevity seems to be a common theme ( Geupel) We know the cowboy hat holds great traditions of bull riders. No doubt this symbol is very meaningful to all those who live this life. Before the event ride, after the ride and at all other times, is when the cowboy hat can be worn. Lets not lose our heads and start our children on the right foot with using a helmet from day one.

Friday, September 20, 2019

The Marketing Planing Process Marketing Essay

The Marketing Planing Process Marketing Essay Just as a healthy skin requires the proper pH balance to flourish, a strong brand like NIVEA requires a marketing plan that must find the right balance to built consistency all around the world. Beiersdorf the German manufacturer has mastered this balancing act with all the skill of an Olympic gymnast. This has made NIVEA the most recognised skin and beauty care brand in the world NIVEA crà ¨me was first introduced by Beiersdorf in the year 1911. Beiersdorf, founded in 1882, has grown to be a global company specialising in skin and beauty care for men and women. NIVEA, one of the oldest and biggest cosmetic brands in the world has successfully transformed itself from a single skin care brand to a trustworthy and contemporary personal care brand for all family types. The brand stretched itself by sub-branding to many new segments, always nursing the core mother brand NIVEA. NIVEA brand has now extended to more than 15 products ranges extending from sun care to facial moisturisers, deodorants and shower products. Beiersdorfs (BDF) Cosmic division decide to have an eye the NIVEA brands growth since last few years. NIVEA is the largest cosmetics brand in the world and it competes against the major brands from the European markets. South and Central America, Eastern Europe, and Asia were the new targets of company to expand the NIVEA brand. NIVEA had created a number of new sub-brands that broadened the companys offerings. Sales in Beiersdorfs cosmic division is primarily driven by NIVEA, grew from à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬1.4 billion in 1995 to à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬3.8 billion in 2005.Source http://www.thetimes100.co.uk/ NIVEA is coming up with a new range of MEN care products NIVEA for MEN Q10 range. This report will start with a situational analysis and then will conclude with a marketing plan for NIVEA. SITUATION ANALYSIS Macro environmental factors for NIVEA are analysed to carry out the situational analysis. The PESTEL factors are: POLITICAL Government stability Foreign trade regulations and taxation policy Privatization and the Security measures For NIVEA and skin and beauty care industry the political factors can be: NIVEA as a skin care industry manufacture must produce safe products that do not contain any harmful substance or are harmful for the consumers. For example SAFETY ASSESSMENTS-The manufacturer or supplier of the cosmetic product is responsible for ensuring it is safe and each cosmetic must be assessed for safety by a duly qualified safety assessor before it is made available to the public.(Ref 1) Foreign Trade Policies and regulations over the imports/exports of products can act as a barrier for such companies. For example in countries like Iraq there may be high taxes on import of such goods or if the company plans to open a manufacturing unit in a country the political laws may not permit to do so The political challenge is that NIVEA needs to follow the all the different government leadership styles in various countries where it performs its operations. As in some countries the availability of raw material or some drug content to be used in manufacturing may not be allowed to produce or import. ECONOMIC Interest Rate Unemployment and inflation For NIVEA and skin and beauty care industry the economic factors can be: Due to the volatile interest rates and the slump in the financial markets in 2007 most of the companies had to face financial crisis. NIVEA also had to make sure that these factors do not affect the sales and lead to crisis. NIVEA has to abide by (The Control of Misleading Advertisements Regulations 1988) and follow the rules set by Advertising Standards Authority. Their adverts should be clear and not mislead the consumers. The rise in the inflation rate resulted in a strong dip in the overall sales of the company. The pressure on prices generated by increasing competition in the premium skin and beauty care market resulted in reduced prices and hence reduced profits. This was a major concern in the company and also the industry. SOCIAL Population demographics Income distribution Lifestyle changes and Consumerism. For NIVEA as skin and beauty care product manufacturer the social factors could be: Consumers have become more cautious about their skin and the way they look. Men/Women both equally are paying more attention towards their looks and are keen to use the products that could help enhance their skins textures. The income distribution plays a very vital role, NIVEA has tried to target consumers at all the different levels from 18-60. Deodorants and other facial products are used by customers of 25-50 years of age irrespective of the gender. Men use after shave and balms to have smooth shaves and looks. On the other hand women use facial creams to have soft skin and glowy looking skin. Anti wrinkle and crà ¨me for aging skin is used to target customers between 40-60 and irrespective of the gender. Different age groups use different products for their beauty and needs. NIVEA has targeted women from 13-19 with its NIVEA Visage, NIVEA for MEN exclusive men products like shaving gels, roll on, after shave balms etc. A large range of products is available for women from 25 45 years of age from NIVEA. TECHNOLOGICAL Speed of technology Rates of obsolescence Government and Industry focus on technological effort For NIVEA as skin and beauty care product manufacturer the technological factors could be: The rate at which the technological advancements take place, companies like NIVEA also has adapted quickly and improved its innovation by using better technologies and doing a lot more research. It may be possible that due to environmental factors some changes may be done in technology to save environment. For example NIVEA continuously works with its Research and Development team to make products that more useful for consumers and least harmful for environment. Technological advancements can help NIVEA to work with better manufacturing processes and units. ENVIRONMENTAL Pollutant problems Waste disposal Environmental pressure For NIVEA as skin and beauty care product manufacturer the environmental factors could be: The ambitious Environmental Protection and Occupational Safety Management System at Beiersdorfs Chilean Affiliate is being successfully adhered to in practice. This was the result of the review of the Modules I and II during the first ESMAS audit in May 2007.(Ref 3) Many different Organisations for animals keep a track that in manufacturing of such products animal prosecution is not included or animals are not used for testing purposes. Some countries have even banned these methods and impose heavy dues on the companies who follow those practices. (PETA) In the 2009 reporting year, the audit team witnessed first-hand the quality of the environmental and occupational safety measures in place at four Beiersdorf locations. During the multi-day Environmental Protection and Safety Management Audit Scheme (ESMAS) audits, the team inspected and certified Beiersdorf plants in Spain, Mexico, Thailand and Indonesia. The results were a success: all production sites were in full compliance with the international ISO 14001 (environmental safety) and OHSAS 18001 (occupational health and safety) standards for environmental and occupational safety management systems. (Ref 3) LEGAL Consumer Product Safety Act (1972) Fair packaging and labelling act (1966) Federal Trade Commission Act(1914) Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act(1975) For NIVEA as skin and beauty care product manufacturer the legal factors could be: Legal factors may include government laws, labour laws that can affect an organization: There are many laws that affect the trade practices that all the companies have to follow, NIVEA also follows all the legal issues that do not violate any act. NIVEAS CURRENT MARKETING STRATEGY NIVEA FOR MEN promoted the new launches of its products through a mixture of above the line and below the line promotion. The use of sport was a key element here, NIVEA FOR MEN supported football events at a grass-roots level through its partnership with Power league to build positive relationship with men. This helped create strong Brand Affinity for NIVEA FOR MEN among men and drive the sales. Ref 4. Above the line promotion included television and cinema adverts, this reached a wide audience. By using links with sport, NIVEA FOR MEN aimed to build a positive male image associated with male facial skin care. SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS NIVEA has a good reputation and brand name. NIVEA is a Global Brand with ability to act local. The Marketing staff with the skills to help promote the above mentioned products effectively. WEAKNESSES Target customer and product range relevance was still not established. The sales and marketing techniques used by NIVEA FOR MEN was not defined clearly. OPPORTUNITIES NIVEA FOR MEN saw a rise in market share, hence an opportunity to increase the market share. Product line can be extended to procure more market share. New products could be introduced as men started buying more advanced products. Women could be targeted as they but products for men. THREATS: Cost of products and sales promotions have become the drivers for sales. Risk of competitors, since some of them have substitute products for support. Improved RD have increased the costs of the products. Lack of innovative products for men. MARKETIN PLAN FOR NEW NIVEA FOE MEN REVITALISING Q10 RANGE NIVEA FOR MEN are coming up with NFM Revitalising Q10 Range, which would help them to increase UK male skincare market. In relation to the above, a marketing plan has been developed. Source- http://www.dsh.cn/en/images/resource02_pic1.gif Set Objectives Setting clear objectives results in a successful marketing plan that must fit overall strategy of the company. In terms of NIVEA their goals were clearly defined as to continuously increase the market share in all areas through qualitative growth and to further improve our strong earnings situation. They also intend to achieve these objectives by continuing to successfully implement their Passion for Success Consumer Business Strategy. (Ref 6) MARKETING OBJECTIVES To expand the current NIVEA FOR MEN To sell more and more NFM products to women. To create NFM brand image as a reliable, user-friendly and good value for money product and to strengthen the brand value. To create oneness in the brand. MARKETING STRATEGY Focus on product development combined with an emphasis on consumer needs is a key differentiator for NIVEA FOR MEN. Strategy would emphasis on promotion of NFM products using the right marketing mix. Choice of Markets: To grow its market share and develop its product range NIVEA has chosen product development as the growth strategy. NIVEAs researches have shown that men mainly wanted skincare products that protected the face after shave. Men are willing to buy products that helped calm and soothe irritated skin caused by shaving. So this is how NIVEA came up with idea to target MEN and develop products that could fulfil the needs of men all over the world. Sales of male skincare products have grown steadily since the launch for NIVEA for Men in 1998 and 2003. The market in 2008 was worth over 117 million pounds with male facial products worth 49 million pounds. (Ref 5) Segmentation: Nivea for Men has segmented its customers on the basis of age, gender and occupation. Gender NIVEA for Men as the name suggests is an exclusive product for men. The range contains all the male products like face wash, deodorants and roll-on, shaving gel, after shave balm, moisturiser, and shower gel. Age NIVEA for MEN the new range should be targeted for men from 18- 25, 25-35 and 35 55. Income- All NIVEA for Men products are not very highly priced, keeping in mind the target customers. But some rechargeable shavers are in the premium segment for NIVEA which is targeted on 25-40, young working professionals. Generally NIVEA has targeted customers who are working professional and they need to socialize in everyday life for their business and they need these products everyday. Shaving gels, post shave balm, roll-ons and moisturisers. Targeting: On the basis of segmentation we will target the current customers of NIVEA for Men those who have been using NIVEA products already. Secondly we will also try to capture new customers who are using the substitute products on the basis of value of NIVEA for Men products and effective prices. Brand Positioning : The NIVEA for MEN Revitalising Q10 range is for the skin care to look bright , healthy and revitalised. With competitive pricing as compared to the competitors NIVEA for MEN can create a unique position in market. The formula for Q10 range is unique which contains no alcoholic content which gives it an edge over the similar products from competitors in the market. So NIVEA for MEN can position itself as the only for men exclusive range with reasonable price adding value to customer both in terms of quality and money. THE MARKETING MIX http://www.netmba.com/images/marketing/mix/mix.gif The right combination of marketing mix that is Product, Price, Place and Promotion can provide a brand the right strategy to target its customer. Let us define the marketing mix for the new NIVEA for MEN Revitalising Q10 range. The NIVEA for Men is in the launch phase of the Product Life Cycle so the product boundaries and features must have a clear definition. http://www.thetimes100.co.uk/case-study-the-use-marketing-mix-product-launch-87-303-3.php Product Customer Solution: The company has made the new NIVEA for Men range more effective and consumer-friendly. Research Work: To know what its customer wants NIVEA conducts researches through: Focus groups to listen to customer directly. Product testing with customers in different markets. Through their website a special section WHAT MEN WANT. Variety: NIVEA for Men has come up with the fuller range of products for men keeping in mind that what men want. It has NIVEA for Men eye roll-on, face wash, post shave balm, shaving gel and moisturiser. Quality: NIVEA for Men has come with a product range that provides unique quality of Q10 revitalising coenzyme that is very essential for skin. This provides NIVEA with a competitive advantage to beat the competition. Packaging: For Packaging NIVEA for Men can go for large packs which use minimum of plastic and that too recyclable. The packaging must include The packaging includes: Brand Name Instructions The Company Address Ingredients Safety Hazards Bar Code NIVEA has clearly understood the needs and wants of its male customers, there problems and so have come up with a complete solution to customers needs with the new NIVEA for Men Q10 Revitalising range of products. Place Convenience: For customers convenience it is important that the product is in range of customers that is easily approachable. Keeping in mind the target customers NIVEA for Men must aim to use as many as relevant distribution channels. Using distribution channels as B2B strategy so that the product reaches the point of sale. Main sales can be retained through large retail store and chains. Already NIVEA has different sources of sale for B2C like Boots, Tesco, Sainsburys, Superdrug, Waitrose, ASDA, Wilkinson, Morrisons, Body Care, and Savers.(Ref 7) Making availability of NIVEA for Men products at wide range of stores ensures the customer reach to these products hence customer convenience. NIVEA products are also available on AMAZON.co.uk so even more customers can be targeted through e-marketing and e-sales. Price Customer Cost : there are many factors like cost of production and transportation that affect how the product is finally priced in the market. As the product is for consumers so it must provide the right value for money to the customers in the market and attract them to buy these products. For NIVEA for Men in the launch phase NIVEA should follow the Market Penetration Pricing. The price of NIVEA for Men products would be low initially to attract maximum customers and capture a large market share. NIVEA for Men can also price its range on competitive base. As competition there are substitutes but are priced highly in the market so a lower price would help NIVEA for Men to gain competitive advantage over its competitors. Promotion Communication: With promotion we can tell are customers that what we have for them and persuade them to buy those products. For promotion NIVEA for Men can implement two types of promotions. Direct Promotion With the direct promotion that are directly paid NFM can go for TV Advertisements, Newspaper Advertisements. Indirect Promotion NFM can organise events for B2C and trade fairs for B2B customers. With Public Relation NFM can go for Press Releases where NFM can target large audience. Sponsoring some events like sports, for example NFM can join the LONDON Olympics 2012 specifically targeting the male Olympic Games. NIVEA can come up promotional campaigns with mobile services company to send promotional texts to all their customers. Distribution of free samples at beginning stage of product launch. Association of the brand with social site like facebook and twitter. Implementation of the Marketing Plan This is the most important phase of a marketing plan. A marketing plan has a defined time so for the above plan we can recommend a time of 1 to 3 years which will include all the research work and later implementation. So the implementation would start with: Research Work: Primary Research from Surveys, Questionnaire and Focus Groups that will provide us with Qualitative data. Secondary Research from the existing data of company; the sale over the year and other promotional expenses. Financial Statements providing the budget for further market research and marketing plan. Forecasting the sales and the cost associated with it. We need to keep in mind the challenges we can face during the implementation of Marketing Plan. Customers may start avoiding the product in case of excessive promotion. Customers may perceive NIVEA for Men as a poor quality product as initial prices will be low due to the launch. Competitors may come up with similar range and price. CONTROL In order to properly control our marketing plan we should: Regularly monitor the progress. Is the plan working or not. Monitor the sales , revenue generated, Return on our investments, customer satisfaction levels through researches and repeat purchases. Employees must be rewarded for achieved objectives. Employees are the main working force behind the plan so employee satisfaction with appraisals and rewards must be done. Market and customer choices changes every minute so regular market researches would help NIVEA for Men to rate their product in market. Any plan needs time to succeed; short term failure should not be taken as the final result. The success of marketing plan depends upon company , people and a smoothened blend between both to achieve the targets. Knowledge of targets and strive to achieve them creates endless possibilities of success. Sample Advertisement- Ref -8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kq70_xdZBxw CONCLUSION The main focus during the launch of the new NIVEA for men would be the mindset of the main target market. An efficient promotional activity along with sales promotion would be used for the launch. This will help to increase the market share and also would affect the overall sales of the NIVEA and the NIVEA FOR MEN range of products. NIVEA has realised that skin care and beauty products that were associated with women, is a thing of past. In todays world even men have started using these products and there is a major gap in the industry for men products. Hence NIVEA has come up with a all new mens range and get the maximum share in the market. Efficient advertisement in all the mediums will be used and so that will help further boost sales and increase the performance and quality perception in the minds of customers which will help also in the positioning product in the marketplace. CRITICAL REFLECTION Todays world is a digital world where a small number people can become voice of thousands and millions. So is the dynamic nature of marketing which has changed its face with changing global business environment. No more are the traditional methods of marketing followed. Marketing is totally customer centric where the aim is to get as close as to the customer. Companies have not limited themselves to a single state, country or a single continent. The greed for progress has made the companies go global. So has the marketing environment and need to market has changed as per the demand and change in customers who are spreaded globally. Companies change their strategies as per the country they are doing business in. For example Mc Donald does not provide beef or ham burgers in INDIA as it is against the choice of the customers. Keeping in mind the customers requirement the apt marketing plan is made. The plan whose outcome matches with what the customers desire. NIVEA as a company provides its customers with Innovative Skin and Beauty care. NIVEA has emerged as the most recognised skin and beauty care brands in the world. Keeping in mind what its customers want NIVEA does regular research work to provide the right value added product to its customers well then let it be NIVEA female range, NIVEA Visage or NIVEA for Men. Extensive Research and Development, wide range of products, top quality and environment friendly procedure and need satisfying products; these all act as a resource and capabilities of the organization which offers value to its customers. Its been an experience to develop a marketing plan for a company. With the development of the marketing plan I have come across the fact that marketing is a critical part of a business plan. Knowledge Gained With this assignment I have learned the minute details of marketing. Customers are the drivers of the market. How is a customer convinced to buy a product ? The use of different models to enhance the sales and give value to the product. VALUE TO CUSTOMERS Today most of the companies are dropping their brand value dramatically as they are moving away from satisfaction of customer needs and wants. The customers want best value for money and want to be loyal to their brands in this tough economic era. Nivea is continuously trying hard to adapt itself to customers need and offer value to them. They are doing so by launching new range of products and re-launching the existing ones. They are strategising themselves by reaching directly to customers and getting them to test new and improved products. They are focussing on the customers and are trying to create tangible human experiences across all marketing touch points. Their strategy states: Be honest about who you are and where you sit on the customer-focus spectrum Listen to your customers-what is good for your customers and if you are not valuing them what are you loosing. In this tough economic climate, resonate your customers and offer relevant value proposition. Hero your products in order to build ongoing relevance and value with the customers. Evaluate, Innovate, Listen and Communicate. The company focuses on the fact that they want their customers to be more of something that could play a role in the consumers life than selling a cure for a problem. They want their product to be an integral part of customers day to day life. They value their customers because they believe that the customers warm feeling towards the brand might turn into higher sales down the line. Providing value to customers is like putting money in the bank, this helps in repeat purchases, customer retention and positive word of mouth which ultimately leads to new customer acquisition. This helps the firm to secure their future in the market. The companies today are adding value to their customers because of the fact that Marketing strategies have changed. Today the focus point is the customer. The difference in todays marketing strategy and old marketing strategy has been stated below. OLD MARKETING SHORT TERM FOCUS. MARKETING MIX. PRICE AND QUALITY SENSITIVE CUSTOMERS. ALL CUSTOMERS EQUAL. MASS MARKETING. AGRESSIVE MARKETING. TRANSACTION PROFIT. NEW MARKETING LONG TERM FOCUS. INTERACTIVE MARKETING. VALUE CONSCIOUS CUSTOMERS. ALL CUSTOMERS NOT EQUAL. INDIVIDUAL MARKETING. SERVICE FOCUS. CUSTOMER LIFETIME VALUE. Value to customers lead to creating value for products and services. Nivea recognizes the role of its customers in developing its strategy. They believe that working on customers insight has led them to explore themselves beyond their existing comfort zone. LEARNING OUTCOME It is said that the more detailed information that has been collected and the more planning that has been done ahead of time, the faster and the more pleasant the trip. This works well for launch of any product by any company. One of the most fundamental features of any successful Business is creation and implementation of its business plan. We being the future entrepreneurs of tomorrow should have complete knowledge of the Start-Up Plans of any business and it was through this module that I learned about writing a Marketing Plan for any product in any business environment. The Marketing Management Module helped me learn ways to write a plan which should be both analytic and fundamental. It made me learn that the Business Plans requires a degree of expertise in Marketing Principles and Forecasting as well as the ability to gather and interpret relevant research data and formatting it the right way. Initially we just had theoretical knowledge about business plans but this module helpe d us think virtually and bring our knowledge into practical sense. Both module and the assignment proved to be very productive and helped me learn the essentials of a marketing plan. It helped me in bringing out the best through extensive research and exploring the data. A Marketing plan is the base of any business enterprise. Whether it is about launching a new product in the market or expansion of market of an existing product. A number of steps are involved in writing a Marketing Plan which should necessarily define the target market and should understand its needs as well. While doing this assignment on Nivea I conducted a clear and succinctive market research. I worked well on the collection of data and researched in depth on the techniques of writing a Marketing Plan which were taught to us in the Marketing Management Module. Today I have realised the fact that writing a Marketing Plan is a challenging job but taking up this one was worth the effort.  This was the learning experience of a lifetime.    A Marketing Plan runs the gamut from being creative to being pragmatic, but it should be written in a style which will be most receptive for evaluation. I managed to do the same by following all the steps involved in writing a Marketing Plan. Marketing Plan has the following elements which involve Executive Summary, Situation Analysis, Marketing Objectives, Target Markets, Marketing Mix, Marketing Budget and the implementation of the Plan as a whole. The first and the foremost step was introducing my parent company which is Nivea. The introduction defines as to what the company is and where will its product stand in the market. Next was Strategic Analysis of the company which was done using PESTEL analysis and SWOT analysis. SWOT made me understand the Strengths, the Weaknesses, the Opportunities which the company can make use of and the Threats which the company might face in the long run. The PESTEL made me realise the factors which affect the company in its establishment and the w orking. All these factors are very essential to keep in mind at the initial stages of the launch as ignorance of any of these might result in a number of pitfalls. The next step involved defining the Marketing Objectives of the new product which is to be launched. The marketing strategy helped me define why and how the plan would work in relation to all the factors influencing the business entity. I emphasised upon Product development of the new range and the Marketing Mix it would follow. This involved taking into account the companies resources, finances and controls. I tried not deviating myself from the path by keeping regular reality checks. These reality checks are very important at the time of making the Marketing Plans as this would help the firm overcome any pitfalls at the time of execution of the Marketing Plan. The last step was the implementation of the Marketing Plan in which I was sure as to what I was actually trying to achieve for my new series. I kept my central aim visible in order to minimise all the distractions and distortions which would frequently arise. Keeping the aim right is the key to success in the implementation of the Marketing Plan. To conclude I can say that I tried bringing together the Uniqueness and the Passion. Uniqueness so that people get what I want to offer them and Passion to enjoy selling what I want to sell. The Marketing Plan for this product would come into action soon and would help the product attain a good market position in the long run. This would surely help the product attract new customers and create wider market for the product. The brand name NIVEA would also be benefited by the launch of this product as this would add to its goodwill. I would conclude by saying that this assignment required a lot of effort but the effort proved to be fruitful. à ‚  

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Edgar Allan Poe Essay -- Biographies Edgar Allan Poe Essayws

Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe's contributions to American literature have become increasingly more prominent as the years have passed. As short fiction has become a more accepted genre in literary circles, Poe's theories are studied with more passion. Although he lived a rather melancholy existence, Poe did experience moments of joy, and desired to capture beauty through poetical form. Indeed, what he left behind for the literary world was his gifted genius, revealed through his poetry, fiction, and criticism. The darkness that seemed to surround Poe's life began as an infant. Poe was born January 19,1809 in Boston Massachusetts, the second son of David and Eliza Poe. Soon afterward, David Poe abandoned the family. Two-years later Eliza passed away, succumbing to tuberculosis. After her death, Poe, his infant sister, Rosalie, and brother William were separated. William was sent to live with their paternal grandparents. Poe moved to Richmond Virginia to live with John and Fannie Allan; Rosalie was taken in by another family in Richmond (Silverman 1-15). John Allan was a successful businessman; the poverty that Poe had been accustomed to was a thing of the past. Although not extravagant with Poe, John Allan ensured that he had a quality education. While in living in England with the Allans, he attended private academies and continued his education in private schools when they returned to the states. Poe enrolled at the University of Virginia in 1826. While there, he accumulated a large debt. He appealed to John Allan to repay the debts but Allan refused. He believed that Poe was in debt due to gambling and his addiction to alcohol (Silverman 29-38). The greatest contributor to Poe's despair would have to be his self-inflicted addiction to alcohol. His foster family's social status made his alcoholism a shameful vice, and a source of conflict. Using it as an escape of sorts, Poe's life was greatly affected by the substance, disrupting his work, his first engagement, and his time with his foster family. After he left his family, he tried to make a life in Boston, where he found his relatives poor, but giving. Reunited with his brother, William, Poe found him dying at the haunting age of 24. His writing became more insistent, as he found himself rejected by several newspapers. He eventually married his cousin, Virginia, who b... ...an Poe's life was one full of despair and depression. Perhaps it was this state of mind which made him fearless, allowing him to voice his opinion in spite of the criticism directed at him. Today, his words are being regarded with a newfound significance, for short fiction has become a genre in and of itself. His theories on writing will continue to be studied for generations to come. Though his place in literary circles was uncertain before, his place in the literary cannon is undeniable today. Works Cited: Hart, James David. The Oxford Companion to American Literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983 Jacobs, Robert D. Poe: Journalist & Critic. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969. May, Charles E. Edgar Allan Poe: A Study of the Short Fiction. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991. Poe, Edgar Allan. Tales of Mystery and Imagination. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1993 Rosenheim, Shawn, and Stephen Rachman, eds. The American Face of Edgar Allan Poe. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995 Silverman, Kenneth. Edgar A. Poe, Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance. New York: Harper 1992 Edgar Allan Poe Essay -- Biographies Edgar Allan Poe Essayws Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe's contributions to American literature have become increasingly more prominent as the years have passed. As short fiction has become a more accepted genre in literary circles, Poe's theories are studied with more passion. Although he lived a rather melancholy existence, Poe did experience moments of joy, and desired to capture beauty through poetical form. Indeed, what he left behind for the literary world was his gifted genius, revealed through his poetry, fiction, and criticism. The darkness that seemed to surround Poe's life began as an infant. Poe was born January 19,1809 in Boston Massachusetts, the second son of David and Eliza Poe. Soon afterward, David Poe abandoned the family. Two-years later Eliza passed away, succumbing to tuberculosis. After her death, Poe, his infant sister, Rosalie, and brother William were separated. William was sent to live with their paternal grandparents. Poe moved to Richmond Virginia to live with John and Fannie Allan; Rosalie was taken in by another family in Richmond (Silverman 1-15). John Allan was a successful businessman; the poverty that Poe had been accustomed to was a thing of the past. Although not extravagant with Poe, John Allan ensured that he had a quality education. While in living in England with the Allans, he attended private academies and continued his education in private schools when they returned to the states. Poe enrolled at the University of Virginia in 1826. While there, he accumulated a large debt. He appealed to John Allan to repay the debts but Allan refused. He believed that Poe was in debt due to gambling and his addiction to alcohol (Silverman 29-38). The greatest contributor to Poe's despair would have to be his self-inflicted addiction to alcohol. His foster family's social status made his alcoholism a shameful vice, and a source of conflict. Using it as an escape of sorts, Poe's life was greatly affected by the substance, disrupting his work, his first engagement, and his time with his foster family. After he left his family, he tried to make a life in Boston, where he found his relatives poor, but giving. Reunited with his brother, William, Poe found him dying at the haunting age of 24. His writing became more insistent, as he found himself rejected by several newspapers. He eventually married his cousin, Virginia, who b... ...an Poe's life was one full of despair and depression. Perhaps it was this state of mind which made him fearless, allowing him to voice his opinion in spite of the criticism directed at him. Today, his words are being regarded with a newfound significance, for short fiction has become a genre in and of itself. His theories on writing will continue to be studied for generations to come. Though his place in literary circles was uncertain before, his place in the literary cannon is undeniable today. Works Cited: Hart, James David. The Oxford Companion to American Literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983 Jacobs, Robert D. Poe: Journalist & Critic. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969. May, Charles E. Edgar Allan Poe: A Study of the Short Fiction. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991. Poe, Edgar Allan. Tales of Mystery and Imagination. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1993 Rosenheim, Shawn, and Stephen Rachman, eds. The American Face of Edgar Allan Poe. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995 Silverman, Kenneth. Edgar A. Poe, Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance. New York: Harper 1992