Thursday, November 28, 2019

The Period Between 1860 Into 1877, While Being Extremely Important In

The period between 1860 into 1877, while being extremely important in the development of our nation, was also an intensely revolutionary period of our country's history in the way that every single act commited during this time was a presedent and in its own way revolutionary itself. This was the first time for our nation to ever go through anything of this magnittude and importance. Everything that was happening here was happening for the very first time. And because of this our country went through a tremedously trying time in both the social and the constitutional fronts. Constitutionaly this nation went through one of the most momentous revolutions in its time. The country was now torn apart over the idea that the south had the constitutional right to decide whether or not slavery should be allowed. The south believed that as is stated in the constitution any power not delegated to the national government is solemnly reserved for the states and the people. Never had an issue been so feircely fought about that it took a nation to be torn in half and many thousands of lives lost until it was finally set right. Another prime example of this was that after the great civil war had been fought and the north declared the victors the government was almost in a state of anarchy. There were arguments every about whether the government had true constitutional means to do anything about the civil rights of Blacks, how would the southern states be reintroduced into the union, should they use Lincolns 10% plan which would allow the rebel states representation onc e more after 10% of the voters of the 1860 election had sworn eliegence to the union or the much harsher plan of the radical republicans which would only allow the states back into the union after 50% of the voters had sworn eliegence and other much harsher circumstance had been completed? There were many dispute over how to handle each and everyone of these issues that lead all the way to the presidency. The constitution was being used in ways that it never had been before, but through all this chaos and disarray it was the one thing that kept this country bound as a union. With out it we may have never survived the even more colossal social developments during this time period. During the time shortly after the civil war the nation went through a revolutionary period of hatred and disgust for each other and the government that had never seen before. Much of this was caused by a trend of corruption that seemed to have taken over many of the government positions. One such example of this was found in a man named Burley "Boss" Tweed who created a personal empire out of his profiteering and soon became a millionaire. This trend was not however limited to the low-lying government positions. It was found all the way up to the office of the vice president. It was said that when the man in the moon passed over America he had to hold his breath because of its retched smell. This in turn created a national mistrust for the government within the people. This was not the only social development that can be called revolutionary. Now that the blacks were free and at least constitutionally supposed to be equal the went through much harder times than and faced much fiercer prejeduce than before the war. Before the civil war they were slaves to their own masters. Now that the have been emancipated they were slaves to their own freedon. When the were with their masters they were dependent upon them for food and shelter. But now that they were free they had do deal with these problems on their own. And because the freedmen's bureau ,which was instituted to help the blacks make the transition from servitude into freedom, had been made ineffective by President Johnson. It was almost impossible for a black man to get a good education. Most often the former slave would have to go back to work for his old master in worse conditions and for very small pay. The time between 1860 and 1877 was revolutionary in the

Sunday, November 24, 2019

The Importance of Napoleon to essays

The Importance of Napoleon to essays THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE NAPOLEONIC WARS TO MODERNITY The French Revolution and Napoleonic years are very important to European history because they mark a time of great change and transformation, a time when Europe was in the thralls of its rise to modernity. Two of the aspects of modernity brought to light during the French Revolution were the increasing importance of the middle class and the idea, though not necessarily the practice, of political liberty. However, some of strides made in France toward modern liberty were almost completely erased only a few years after the Revolution by Napoleon Bonaparte, who brought his own thoughts on modernity to Europe with the advent of nationalism and total warfare. One of the other ways in which the Revolution affected the rise of modernity was by asserting the importance of the middle class and masses. Before the revolution, France was made up of three estates: The First Estate was the Church, which made up 1-2% of the population, the Second Estate was the nobility which made up less than 2% of the population and the Third Estate was the commoners, which made up approximately 96% of the population. Whereas the First and Second estates enjoyed luxury, extensive privileges and great wealth, the Third Estate were the heavily taxed and poorly treated bourgeoisie, peasants and city workers. One of the reasons the revolution originated was the discontent among the lower and middle classes in France. Those in the Third Estate grew tired of the unjust laws and taxes they were forced to live by and decided to take a stand, eventually making their mark in French society. One of the first times the masses asserted themselves was when the newly formed National Assembly was drawing up a Constitution. Angry crowds in Paris rioted, forcing the National Assembly to recognize their demands. The people were protesting heavy taxes, and outrageous food prices. Ne...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Culture of an Organization Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Culture of an Organization - Research Paper Example In the said article, the report clearly states that there was major collaboration between the US and Mexican informants which resulted to the fall of some major drug cartels across Mexican boundary. Although Mexico was no longer part of the US’s area of responsibility, powerful and influential drug cartels in the said country remain to affect the US which usually would result to its continuing problem and fight with major prevailing crimes. In the article of Thomson, it also states that American officials believe that the Drug Enforcement Administration informants having link with cartels are of great help in tracking down culprits of major crimes. The US law enforcement agency is a significant component of the country’s criminal justice system. This agency must have important information as basis prior to its actual decision-making process towards the society’s concerns on criminal activities initiated by highly systematic criminal individuals, groups or organiz ations. This agency is therefore having a strong culture about relying on exact information. Its ability to incur services from Drug Enforcement Administration informants is a remarkable justification of its existing culture. In other words, informants have critical role to play towards the kind of decision that the US law enforcement agency must remarkably apply. ... e US law enforcement agency must therefore improve further its capacity to track down criminals and one way of doing so is to establish a high system of information-based system. Informants are significant components of it, which only means that they are elemental factors for the future directions of the US law enforcement agency. After all, an organization must remarkably consist of a social network which would not only make monitoring of flow of information and work output possible, but as well as culture (Carpenter, Bauer & Erdogan, 2009). In the case of the US law enforcement agency, its potential networks for the fulfillment of its objectives involve the informants as its external stakeholders. The second article is â€Å"Independent Agency Gets New Powers to Prosecute New York Police Officers† written by Baker and published in New York Times. Board lawyers have been given the chance to act as prosecutors instead of the police agency employees in cases when police officer s will be subjected to internal or administrative discipline (Baker, 2012). According to Baker, this was the response of the federal government after the Police Department faced cases concerning corruption, stop-and-frisk practices, lack of integrity of its crime data, and some associated violations in policing. All of these are potential grounds and bases concerning series of Wall Street protests against the Police Department. In this agreement, civilians at last have the opportunity that their voices be heard through the Civilian Complaint Review Board. Based on the above summary of the second article, it is clear that civilians are therefore other external stakeholders that have potential impact on the decision-making of criminal justice agencies. After all, it is the people which the criminal

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Buddhism Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Buddhism - Research Paper Example Second one is the practicality check measurement in the Buddhists beliefs to explore its flexibility and modernism that may lead to the problem handling processes in the modern era of science and technology. Self-awareness is the primary motive behind such critical constructive reflections. Generally there are two ways to explore any religion as the beginner. The first one practiced commonly is researching and observing the ideas and beliefs of a particular group of people with a defined school of thought in order to validate the truth and purity behind the theoretical and practical aspects of a religion. Second one is to make an unbiased research on the personality of central concern to the followers of certain religion. Its little bit more productive to do a critical reflection in a way to first explore the central character and then to observe the followers community. Siddhartha Guatarna is the central focus of the Buddhist community. Siddhartha Guatarna was bold and visionary soul with a mission to drive his live. He left his house to explore the world, the research out the source of happiness and to discover the cause of being. It was indeed a hard journey – journey towards the truth. He was a kind soul and wanted to help out the people in misery situations, he worked hard to aid people suffering, he applied his knowledge to save people’s life, and collectively he was much more than an ordinary man [AE12]. He was the brave soul and practical example of noble people for those who found no one to help them out. Some of the practices in the Siddhartha Guatarna period were simply astonishing. For women, Buddhism allowed the ownership of private companies and personal Sangha at that time. The time when no strong set of moral values was any more practiced in the society, such freedom of choice provided to women was indeed worthy appreciation [PG10]. It was the same time when talking about women

Monday, November 18, 2019

Alessandro Boticelli's The Birth of Venus Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Alessandro Boticelli's The Birth of Venus - Essay Example As David Alexander Scott maintains, the woman playing the role of the live nude goddess is assumed to have the properties of the image, i.e. substantially gratifying and monolithically sexual and the art of the period after the close of the medieval age has particular importance. "In the Western history of the Renaissance is the designated watershed that loosened the political power of the Christian church and allowed Eros a renewed, although circumspect, presence in art. Perhaps there is no greater icon of this age than Botticelli's painting The Birth of Venus in which the goddess, nude and unsure of herself, is blown to shore by the winds of change after an eternity of exile. The painting signaled a major breakthrough in one aspect of the medieval public policy on Eros, that of the inherent sinfulness of the naked body." (Scott, 197) Significantly, once the body as image had shed its ecclesiastical garments, the body's sensuality - the more heinous sin - was able to emerge by degre es in successive generations of renderings. Therefore, a reflective analysis of Alessandro Botticelli's painting The Birth of Venus brings out the obvious relationship between art and sexual values in the background of the society. In a reflective analysis of Botticelli's The Birth of Venus, one recognizes that the sexual values found in the society of the artist find expression in the popular art of the society and the painting brings out the obvious relationship between art and sexual values. Significantly, Venus is the goddess of love and beauty and she exemplifies physical perfection. She, lacking the quirky, individual features that distinguish one woman from another, looks like no one in particular but familiar nevertheless. "In the ancient Greek tale, Venus is both sexual and divine, flesh and spirit. However, in Botticelli's painting, she appears neither sensual nor seductive and far too chaste to be erotic. Having just been born, she exists apart from the real world of human experience. Even the landscape setting, with its pale green sea, mathematically scalloped waves and serrated shore, supports this impression of her as an abstract ideal." (Cohn, 73) Therefore, it is obvious that the sexual values f ound in the society of Botticelli had an essential influence on the painting and Botticelli has been careful in representing these particular values. It was in the background of the middle of 1480s that the famous painting by Botticelli was painted and there is apparent relationship between the painting and the sexual values of this period. In the painting, Venus is standing in the centre of the picture on a seashell floating in the water, in accordance with the classical mythology which says that she sprang from the floating waters of the sea. "The figure of Venus appears in Botticelli's painting almost like a classical statue. Botticelli has gone over the contours of the figure with a black line, causing them to stand out sharply from the surface of the picture and emphasizing their curious clarity and coldness." (Deimling, 52) The depiction of the goddess of lo

Friday, November 15, 2019

Pest Analysis Macro Environment Marketing Essay

Pest Analysis Macro Environment Marketing Essay The purpose of this report is to analyse the food retail industry in the United Kingdom. The reasons of the industry selection can be concentrated to the broad range of provided products and services, the financial activity of the industry, the influence in the peoples life and the various external factors that affect the sector. The analysis will begin with a presentation of the food retail industry and a highlight of its significant features. Furthermore, to assess the remote environment of the industry a PEST analysis will be conducted, analysing the political, economical, social and technological factors that affect the industry. Furthermore, a Porters 5 forces analysis will be used to evaluate the operating environment and the nature of competition. Moreover the major competitors and their competition strategies will be identified. Additionally, the effect of the remote and operating environment on the players of the industry will be highlighted. Also, a critical analysis of the industrys strength and its future will be presented. Finally, a critical evaluation on the used business analysis techniques will be illustrated. The UK food retail industry is an established sector of the UK economy. During the last thirty years the food retail corporations expanded their activities to serve various consumer needs. The products that are provided to the public include food and its sub-products, but also alcohol, tobacco, health and beauty products, clothing, electrical products, homeware, fuel and financial services. However, according to the Mintel report 2009, more than half of the total sales in 2008 were assigned to food. Furthermore, concerning the size of the industry an increasing trend of sales can be observed of about 4% per year from 2004 to 2008 and a total amount of 108.1 billion pounds in 2008 (National Statistics Mintel report 2009). The food retail industry is mainly controlled by large supermarket chains that possess the overwhelming majority of the industrys market share, as it will be analysed further in the report. Concerning the size diversification of the retail stores, the majority are large units like hypermarkets, supermarkets and discounters with a percentage of 62% of the total number of stores. Furthermore, small units as convenience stores and gas stations represent the 21.2% and food and drink specialists the 11.3%. The minority are drug stores, warehouses and cash and carry stores (Datamonitor 2009). 3. PEST analysis Macro-environment To analyse the macro-environment or otherwise known remote environment of the food retail industry, a PEST analysis will be used to specify how Political and legal, Economical, Social and Technological issues affect the industry. 3.1 Political There are many political and legal factors that affect the food retail industry. Future political decisions concerning taxation or the retail industry legislation will definitely have an impact in the industry competitors policies and strategies. The current legislation and regulation concern competition, employment, environmental, food and grocery safety, financial services and health issues. Specifically, the UK food retailers are obliged to follow food hygiene legislation set by the Food Standards Agency and the equivalent European Union regulation such as the General Food Law Regulation. In the UK the food safety act of 1990 was enacted to set the food safety requirements for food intended for human consumption. The Food Standards Agency was created in 2000 after the food standards act of 1999, which was enacted to further secure the public health related to food safety (Office of Public Sector Information, 1999). The UK food retailers are obliged to follow the above regulations in conjunction with the General Food Regulations 2004 that set the rules about the transportation, distribution, quality, hygiene, maintenance, advertising and selling of food and its substances. Especially for the food hygiene and maintenance the rules and requirements of the Food Hygiene Regulations of 2006 and the internationally recognised Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) must be followed (Food Standards Agency, 2010). Therefore, possible disobedience of the above regulations by the supermarkets will cause legal problems and the enforcement of fines, harming their budget and social image. The competition in the UK is observed and controlled by two government bodies, the Competition Commission and the Office of Fair Trading. The two government bodies ensure that the companies in the UK comply with the competition law and practices. Therefore, they observe and interface the market to avoid monopoly, oligopoly and cartel phenomena. Their role beyond the control of competition between the competitors within the industry is to ensure the fair trade between the supermarkets and their supplies. According to recent press publications the fair trade is currently the most important issue (Haurant S., 2009). In 2001 the Office of Fair Trading enacted the Supermarkets Code of Practice to regulate and assure the trade between supermarkets and suppliers, who include amongst others, farmers and breeders (Office of Fair Trading, 2001). Additionally, the major supermarket chains had been often accused for anticompetitive, unfair practices and failure to meet the necessary requirements . For example, in April 2010 the Office of Fair Trading fined nine retailers for anticompetitive practices at their tobacco pricing between 2001 and 2003 (Mintel report, 2009). For this reason the Competition Commission planned to change the existing Supermarkets Code of Practice to a new Grocery Supply Code of Practice (Haurant S., 2009). The new code of practice added intensive pressure to the Grocery retailers because they were forced to comply with stricter regulation and to cover the costs of the observation body. This new regulation led to greater competition which toughed the operations of the supermarkets but reduced slightly the prices to benefit the consumers. Another important group of regulations are those concerning the planning and environmental law. The grocery retail companies need to comply with the planning law to be able to expand their activities in new places. During the past years, the grocery retailers tended to expand their stores in places away from town centres. The reason was primary the reduced property prices and the ability to construct large supermarket units, maximising their profits. However this trend provoked a series of issues such as the increased pollution from the consumers transportation leading the government to change the legislation, demanding the presence of town centre stores at first. Therefore, the reaction of the supermarket chains was to increase the number of mid-size and small stores who complied with legislation and increased the supermarkets points of presence (Tescopoly; Butler S., 2006). Furthermore, the grocery retail corporations need to comply with environmental law and regulations concerning goods transportation pollution, aesthetics, proper disposal and recycling. For example the supermarkets were forced by new legislation to charge their customers a certain cost for each provided plastic bag (Brogan B., 2008). There is a significant percentage of the workforce that is employed in the food retail industry. Therefore, the food retail companies are obliged to comply with the UK and EU employment legislation exactly as the rest of the employers. Labour law such as the Employment Rights Act 1996 and the Employment Act 2002 specify the workers rights including wages, working conditions, work hours and job security Also, during the past thirty years, a series of anti-discrimination laws were enacted to establish equality and diversity in the workforce (, 2008;, 2010). Also, the food retail corporations are obliged to comply with health and safety standards in the workplace in operations like the use of machinery, electrical equipment, transportation of goods, violence etc (Shropshire, 2010). These regulations are mainly set by the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and the Workplace regulations of 1992. Therefore, any political decision leading to more complex employm ent legislation can increase the labour costs in the industry and reduce the profitability. Additionally, non compliance with the labour regulations can lead to long term litigations with former or employees or the government. During the last years the large supermarket chains expanded their activities to provide financial services such as credit cards, loans and deposits. Therefore the supermarkets are obliged to comply with the legislation and regulations enacted by the Financial Services Authority (Financial Services Authority, 2010). Therefore, a possible change in financial services taxation or regulation will affect their profitability. Furthermore, the supermarkets are obliged to pay the equivalent corporate tax at the HM Revenue and Customs. 3.2 Economical The economic factors, incidents and situations that affect the food retail industry can be concentrated in the following categories: Consumer spending and disposable income, inflation, taxation, interest rates, unemployment, monetary issues, and the recent financial crisis. The recent financial crisis has definitely brought many important changes in the food retail sector as well as to the majority of the industries. However, the effect of the financial crisis did not affect negatively the consumer demand. On the contrary the consumer spending in the food retail industry increased from 2007 to 2008 especially in the food products and continues to increase at an approximately rate of 5% (National Statistics; Mintel report, 2009). The main implication for this trend was that because of the recession, the consumers cut their eating out expenses and started to consume food at home as it is much cheaper. Furthermore the sales of organic food, specialised products such as television and sound systems and expensive products declined (Mintel report, 2009).On the contrary, the sales of own brand products and hard discounters chains increased indicating the consumers turn in low cost products. The price competition and the importance of food increased the consumer demand and expenditure; however it is doubtful if it will continue to rise mainly because of the general economic uncertainty and the higher upcoming personal income taxation. In macroeconomic terms, the GDP after a massive decline in its change rate started to increase after the mid 2009 to reach a positive 0.5% in early 2010. Also, the inflation after a decline during the recession increased in late 2009 which probably led to an increasing trend at groceries prices (National Statistics, 2010). However, the Bank of England continues to maintain the interest rates at a low level (0.5%), to protect the fragile economy (BBC, 2010). This low interest rate will lead to increased consumption because consumers will favour to spend than to save their funds and the food retailers will be able to borrow funds at a low costs to cover their liabilities. This fact will act as compensation to the increased inflation and will probably maintain the prices. Concerning the monetary issues, during the last three years the sterling faced a significant decline of approximately (-26%) towards the euro and approximately (-25%) towards the dollar which increased the cost of imported goods in the UK (Yahoo Finance, 2010). Therefore, this situation might force the UK food retailers to construct food manufacturing plants in the United Kingdom and prefer UK suppliers. Thus, the grocery retailers will be able to have a stable pricing policy and larger price margins. From 2009 to 2010 the exchange rates fluctuated causing uncertainty and maintaining the food prices high One of the most important parts of the economic factors that affect the food retail industry is taxation. This is divided to personal income tax for the consumers and to corporation tax for the supermarkets. After May 2010 elections a coalition government between the Conservatives party and the Liberal Democrats party formed and changes are expected in taxation. Concerning income tax an increase in tax contributions is expected in 2010/2011 which will lead to a decline in consumption possibly affecting the more expensive goods and food retailers. On the other hand the corporate tax will be probably reduced during 2010 to boost economy and development. (Vincent, 2010) Therefore, the food retail corporations will be able to afford larger margins to price competition. The above facts will possibly lead the supermarkets to a trend of decreasing prices in basic goods and making offers to maintain consumer spending levels. For example there is a trend at supermarkets to offer products in r ounded prices ( £1,  £2) creating an offer impression (Felsted A., 2010). 3.3 Social The next sector of the PEST analysis is consisted by the social factors that affect the industry such as the demographics, lifestyle, culture and population trends. It is well known that Europes population is getting older and as years are passing this phenomenon will be more intense. In the United Kingdom (Mintel report, 2009) the average age and the percentage of retired people are rising. This trend has many implications to the food retail industry. First of all, elder people tend to consume less than younger people. This happens because their income which mainly comes from pensions is lower. Secondly, elder people tend to shop from the cheaper discounter retailers. Therefore, the market share of the discounter chains will increase against the rest of the competitors in the industry (Mintel oxygen, 2009). Also, the additional needs of this age group leads to an increasing trend of online and distance shopping which increase the home grocery deliveries. Thus, the operational costs of the supermarkets increase due to increased expenses for vehicles and personnel. Another implication coming from the ageing population will be the need for new product lines designed for people with various chronic ailments which are common amongst elder people. An important issue that concerns the society is obesity. According to the Health Survey for England, there is an increasing trend of obesity especially in children (NHS, 2009). The health problems and their consequences led the government and various organisations to promote a healthier lifestyle in Britain. Therefore, the consumers health awareness increased and they turned their interest to healthier foods and to more fruit and vegetables. Thus, it can be supposed that the food retail corporations will continue to adapt to the consumers demand enhancing their existing product lines with new healthier products such as organic foods, low fat and low sugar products and healthy food campaigns. Also, it will be possible to appear products for specific social groups such as people suffering from diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and allergies. Therefore, by targeting these consumer groups the food retail corporations will increase their income and improve their corporate social image. Furthermore, the increasing trend of more women entering the workforce, led to the need for ready meals at the supermarkets because women had less time to prepare food after work (International Labour Organisation, 2008). As this trend continues the supermarkets will expand their ready meals variety and create new categories depending into cost, calories and taste covering different needs. Also, the presence of different people from different background and culture in the UK changed the structure of the society. According to the UK National Statistics approximately the 10% of the UK population is non-British (UK National Statistics, 2001). Different cultures mean different habits and different food preferences. Therefore, the food retailers often provide goods from all over the world to serve those needs. 3.4 Technological The final element of the PEST analysis concerns the technological factors that are related to the food retail industry. The technological development affected and changed the industry in different categories including consumers, environment, cost, distribution, and logistics. During the last decade, the supermarkets in the United Kingdom took advantage of the internet and they are offering online shopping to the consumers. Through this innovative feature the supermarkets offer their entire catalogue of products to the consumers and the ability to compare prices, search for a product, pay and order for their groceries. Therefore, the food retailers reduce their personnel costs while they are able to advertise almost free and make consumers aware of their offers. Also it is not unusual that many products cannot be found inside the stores and are available only through e-commerce (Tesco annual report 2009). This is another example of minimising operating costs while increasing sales. Furthermore, the food retail corporations used the information technology to organise their operations and maximise the organisations efficiency and profitability. Specifically, the management of each organisations functions is assigned to specialised software and digitalisation of processes. Through the use of innovative technology the cost and the paperwork is reduced and time is saved. Also, the logistics department increases its efficiency because the supply chain is more efficient controlled and the stock management provides a real and immediate view (Sainsburys annual report 2009). The implementation of technology can be beneficial for both retailer and consumer. The self-checkout machines reduce the labour costs of the company because they usually require one person per five machines to observe. Also, in that way the consumers save time and control their groceries shopping. The introduction of point earning cards offers discounts and rewards to the consumer while it provides valuable information to the supermarket company about the preferences and habits of each individual. The analysis of this information assists to the companys advertising planning and strategy while it offers the ability of targeted marketing (Moody, 1997). The effective application of technology in the distribution and transportation process through energy efficient vehicles protects the environment as it reduces the vehicles carbon emissions. Furthermore, the food retail company improves its corporate social responsibility and reduces the goods transportation cost. Finally, the Universal Product Code or in other words bar-code was an innovation that brought a revolution in the industry. Each product could have its specific bar-code, simplifying the pricing and check-out while saving time and establishing accuracy. Also, the use of wireless technology and the attachment of electronic chips on the products can prevent theft and measure the product availability on shelves. Therefore, the inventory is the supply process becomes faster and the food retail corporations avoid unexpected losses that due to their volume can have a significant cost for the organisation (Food Marketing Institute, 2010). 4. Porters five forces analysis Operating Environment To analyse the operating environment of the food retail industry and evaluate its competitive nature, a Porters Five Forces Analysis, created by E.M Porter professor at Harvard University Business School, will be used. According to Porter the five forces are: the industry competitors rivalry, the threat of new entrants, the bargaining power of suppliers, the bargaining power of buyers and the threat of substitutes products or services (Porter, 2004). 4.1 The industry competitors rivalry. The competition in the food retail industry is intense. The named big4 supermarkets which are: Tesco, Sainsburys, Asda, Morrisons own the 73.3% market share, fact that makes the industry an oligopoly (Mintel report 2009). Below are the identified the major competitors in the industry and their competitive strategies. 4.1.1 Tesco Tesco is the market leader with a market share of 31%, and a total number of outlets 2,282, is traded in the London Stock Exchange and had  £41,520m sales and  £2,381m profit in 2009. Beyond food products it sells electrical equipment, health products, petrol, clothing, homeware, telecommunications through a joint venture with O2, and financial services through Tesco Bank (Datamonitor, 2009). Also, Tesco is expanding to land telecommunications, construction and youth clothing (Parker; Felsted; Poulter; Minton, 2010) Tescos expansion plans target to the development of the small Tesco Express who satisfy the legal size requirement of Sunday trading act to operate on Sunday (DEFRA, 2006). The objectives of Tescos strategy are concentrated in five areas: to be a successful international retailer, to grow the core UK business, to be as strong in non-food as in food, to develop retailing services such as Tesco Personal Finance, Telecoms and and to put community at the heart of what we do (Tesco Annual report 2009). 4.1.2 Sainsburys Sainsburys is a supermarket chain in the United Kingdom with a market share of 15.4%, and a total number of outlets 792, is traded in the London Stock Exchange and had sales  £18,911m and  £466m profit in 2009. Sainsburys sells food products, home and garden products, electrical appliances, clothing, health products, sports and leisure products, petrol and offers financial and insurance services. Also, Sainsburys is expanding to Electricity and Gas, broadband and digital TV. Furthermore, Sainsburys collaborates with convenience store chains Bells Stores, Jacksons Stores, and JB Beaumont Stores in a strategic alliance move to increase its market share in the convenience stores battle. Sainsburys concentrate its corporate objectives in five areas: Great food at fair prices, Expansion in non-food products and services, Reaching more consumers through alternative distribution channels (online shopping), growing supermarket space and active property management of existing stores (Datamonitor, 2009; Rigby and Killgren, 2008; Sainsburys annual report, 2009). 4.1.3. Asda Asda is a supermarket chain owned by Walmart a United States of America supermarket corporation. Asda operates in the United Kingdom with a market share of 15.1% and a total number of outlets 356 and had sales  £18,573m and  £520m profit in 2009. Asda sells food products, health and beauty products, household products and petrol. Also it offers telecommunication services through its own mobile network Asda mobile and clothing through the George stores. Asdas competitive strategy is to differentiate from the competition emphasises in the fresh food, including bakers and butchers in its stores. Also, Asda operates a discount store Asda Essentials with own brand products competing directly with the discounters Lidl and Aldi. In a generic view, Asda targets in price competition boasting better prices and offers. (Datamonitor 2009;, 2004) 4.1.4. Morrisons Wm Morrison supermarkets or otherwise Morrisons is the fourth supermarket chain in the United Kingdom. Morrisons have a market share of 11.8% and a total number of outlets 420. Morrisons sells groceries, household products, petrol and dry cleaning and photo services. Morrisons operates through its own stores and its subsidiaries with Safeway among others. Morrisons target is to become the Food Specialist for Everyone as it owns 13 manufacturing plants and a fresh food factory. Morrisons concentrates its strategy around three brand values: Fresh, Value and Service. This means that Morrisons targets to offer fresh food in competitive prices in a premium consumer service. Generally, Morrisons is an emerging power in the industry and tries to gain competitive advantage by connecting the gap between value and high quality products. (Datamonitor, 2009; Wm Morrison annual report, 2009) Examining the nature of competition and the competitive rivalry it can be observed that the market share of mid-size and local grocery retailers is too small and the increasing appearance of big4 convenience stores and the large fixed costs. This leads to the implication that the competition in the industry is mainly concentrated among the major competitors. The major competitors are operating in a mature market, which pushes them to fiercely compete for market share through price, range and service (DEFRA 2006). In a mature market with a stable population like in the UK the consumption cannot be increased significantly. Thus, the main objective is to acquire a bigger percentage of the market share pie. Therefore, this situation has driven the grocery retailers to compete in a price war to maintain their customers and if possible to attract more to increase their revenues (Felsted, 2010). For this reason the grocery retailers aim to innovate and minimise the cost to be able to allow larger price margins. Also, taking into account the recent financial crisis and the recession it can be observed that the consumers were cutting their expenses and turned to hard discounters chains such as Lidl and Aldi. (Mintel report, 2009) This situation strengthens the price competition from sophisticated to basic products such as milk, poultry and bread. Also, the major competitors adopted aggressive advertising policy comparing often their prices with competition (Leroux, 2009). Furthermore, to increase their competitiveness supermarkets expand their activities and increase their product range. For example they offer in their stores non-food products like electrical equipment, homeware, pharmacy, financial services etc. This action widened their competitive arena, as they compete with a large portion of the retail sector such as electrical equipment, clothing, DoItYourself, furniture and health and beauty stores. The existence of petrol stations at the supermarkets competes directly with the petroleum providers e.g. BP and SHELL. Also, the supermarkets expansion to financial services e.g. Tesco Bank, place supermarkets to compete with retail banks. It can be suggested that the supermarkets because of the mature food market aim to provide a total package of products and services to their customers covering all their consuming needs; thus increasing the food retail industrys sales and profits. 4.2 The threat of new entrants. The entrance of new competitors in the food retail industry faces several difficulties. The creation of a new supermarket chain requires large capital investment, funds for corporate planning, advertising and trading capital. Furthermore, the majority of the industrys market share is acquired by the established big4 chain supermarkets and the margins for expansion are very limited. Also, the acquisitions are very difficult to realise because of the high value of the existing chains. However possible mergers or strategic alliances might take place. Other barriers to entry in the industry are the large fixed costs and the developed supply chains. Also, the existing dominants of the market benefit from the economies of scale which gives them the ability to adopt an aggressive pricing strategy. Therefore, it is very hard for the smaller retailers to compete and survive in that environment. According to the Competition Commission (2008) there are three different factors that lift entry barriers to the industry: a) cost advantages that large grocery retailers have b) the planning regime for grocery retailing and c) the control of land of large grocery retailers. The Competition Commission report divides the large grocery retailers cost advantages in two categories: distribution costs and purchasing costs. The large grocery retailers gain benefits from reduced distributions costs occurring by economies of scale and economies of density. The economies of density benefit the supermarkets because they operate satellite distribution centres that serve groups of stores. This process reduces the distribution costs because the distribution centres supply only the short and medium distance branches saving time distance and transportation costs. The economy of scale impact is that the supermarket chains use technology to control the products availability, to maintain the sensitive groceries such as meat and vegetables. Also, the supermarket maximise the efficiency of the distribution from and to suppliers, supermarket stores and consumers. Therefore this acts as another barrier to entry because the large supermarket chains have established channels of distribution and a cost effective distribution network supported by their own distribution fleet which covers the majority of the British territory (Competition Commission, 2008). The purchasing costs act as a barrier to entry to the food retail industry. The large supermarket chains because of their high volume purchases are able to deal better prices with their suppliers. Therefore, they are able to offer their products at a lower price in contrast with the smaller retailers who are obliged to purchase at a higher price (Competition Commission, 2008). Also, the big4 chains have already a competitive advantage because they possess knowledge and information about the suppliers. The volume of their sales gives them the ability to make large orders of supplies in lower prices. Another barrier to entry in the industry is the current planning regime for grocery retailing. The planning regulation sets limitations to the ability of new and existing competitors to open new stores in the positions they want. The reasons for this include environmental, competition and town planning issues. Also, the continuous development of supermarket outside towns led the UK government to demand the town centre development since 1996 (Competition Commission, 2008). Additionally the large supermarket chains already control the suitable land and the best locations, which make the rest of the sites expensive and difficult to find. All the barriers to entry in the industry are beneficial to the oligopolistic big4 supermarket chains and allow them to increase their profitability through the reduced costs and by controlling the goods prices. 4.3 The bargaining power of suppliers. According to the Datamonitor report (2009) the suppliers in the grocery retail industry include: food manufacturers, food processors, farmers, and agricultural co-operatives. The most powerful suppliers are the food manufacturers and the food processors because their number is smaller and in some cases they are irreplaceable. The bargaining power of the suppliers is high when they supply the supermarkets with branded goods that are highly demanded by the consumers. The supermarkets cannot apply big pressure to secure low prices and the suppliers can negotiate better prices. Therefore the supermarket chains make long term contracts with certain suppliers while maintaining their deals with a variety of suppliers to keep the switching costs low. Furthermore, the presence of the supermarkets own brands weakens the position of the suppliers and reduces their bargaining power. For example the supermarket chain Sainsburys includes in their product line their own branded Sainsburys ham and the Danepak ham and the consumers prefer them because they are usually sold at lower prices (Ali, 2009). The implication is that the supermarkets gain bargaining power because they are able to change suppliers or to make big orders. However when the food retailers choose to cooperate with only a few suppliers they give bargaining power to suppliers. For example big food manufacturer like Nestle have loyal consumers who give high value to the brand. Therefore, the supermar

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

John Steinbecks Of Mice and Men :: Essays Papers

Of Mice and Men Summary This story is about Lennie Small and his friend, George Milton, both of them were forced to leave weed because Lennie was accused of raping a girl. This book was set in Salinas Valley, California. The book begins with the two of them hiding from the mad townspeople. Lennie had a tendency to grab things and not let go, yet he was unaware of his own strength. This problem got them into trouble a lot. Chapter One: Lennie and George are hiding. They were forced to leave Weed because Lennie was accused of rape. They went from ranch to ranch. They sit and talk and disgust their plans are for the next day, then they go to a ranch and George does all the talking. Chapter Two: Lennie and George arrived at the ranch were his new home is. He asks them for both of their names, and where they worked before and what skills they have. George answers every question for Lennie that makes the boss curious. He asks George why he always answers the questions for Lennie, thinking that is trying to get Lennie’s pay. Then he tells him that Lennie is a little slow. After he left, Candy came in and so did Curley. Once he left, George and Candy talked about him. Candy said that Curley hates men who are bigger than him. Candy also said that Curley's wife is a flirt. Soon after, Curley's wife entered looking for her husband. After flirting with George and Lennie, she leaves. Chapter Three: Slim's dog just had puppies and Lennie asked if he could have one. Slim said yes. George told Slim about the incident in Weed. He also told him that Lennie had a problem where he has to touch pretty things, so he grabbed a girl’s dress. The girl started to scream. So he held on tighter because he was confused. The girl accused Lennie of rape and they had to leave town. Carlson tried to convince Candy to shoot his dog because it was so old and in constant pain. Candy finally said yes after arguing and then he shot the dog, and buried it. Several minutes later Curley came into the bunkhouse looking for his wife. He was told that no one had seen her around and was about to leave but he noticed that Slim was not there, either.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Organizational Behavior Essay

This paper will describe what are believed to be the important elements of organizational behavior and how these elements challenge the effectiveness of a private security agency. Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. The purpose of the behavior is to build a better relationship and have objectives in the business. In both private security agencies and the criminal justice system it will establish important matter with an effective organizational behavior to operate their job duties correctly. The primary objective and the goals of private security agencies were to make sure that the safety of the customers were met. This mean to satisfy the needs, wants and demands of the customer in a successful manner. The private security sectors have the elements and combine them to build a great model and be able to organize the business and operate from that model. Managers in private security use the details in the organizational behavior policy to help make the decisions that will affect the company. This policy will help direct the employees and their attitudes as well as the performance of those very employees. The OB will also allow the managers to better understand the best way to allocate resources for the betterment of the company. In the private security agency and through the use of the organizational behavior plan and policy communication is going to be the key in achieving the goals that are set for the company. Management needs to focus on the employees and be able to predict which employees are productive, dedicated employees and the ones that lack those qualities. Preventing adverse actions against the company and the employees from happening is the primary job and goal of the private security manager. The manager’s main responsibility at a private security agency is to have an impact on the performance of the employees. This is often done through the  monitoring of the behavior skills as a team and productivity. Every company will have a diversity with peop le they hire, as they will all come from different backgrounds and cultural values. The other issue that a company will have when dealing with diversity is a variety of views on personalities and the way that things need to be done. In most cases there will be some that will be extremely hard working and take their duties very serious, and then another may do a little as possible to simply get the job done or appear to be busy. The work ethics of the employees are not factors that should play a role in the environment that the employees are expected to work, and it is not unfair for the employer to expect the employee to complete the duties of the job with effectiveness and efficiency. There are challenges that a private security agency will face, and hopefully handle to the best of their ability. The management needs to be ready to step in and be persistent and be able to work to lower the employee turnover rate. There are also going to be some employee turnover when there is a management change because of a conflict in personalities. The last thing that a manager wants to happen is the loss of employees due to changes in policy. As a manager one should be able to motivate the employees and have growth in job performance, satisfaction which will lead to less absenteeism, human resource issues and improve the trust between the employees and the management. Conclusion In conclusion the behavior of the people is based on what is important to themselves. Management teams need to be observers of their employees and their behaviors, the managers are going to see things differently than the employees. The last thing that management will want to do is down play the employee’s feelings on any given situation. As with any company a group of employees are going to act differently in the same situation, because they are all different. The manager must be aware of the differences and develop a platform that will be the same for all employees and the situations that may transpire. The organization behavior will help managers see the employee’s behavior and reform them or to simply remove them and their behavior. Organization behavior is something that should be in place in all areas of the criminal justice system as well as private security agency to have a safe work place, and behavior environment with employees and the  customers. References Manager-Solve-Practical-Problems-at-The Pervez, Organizational Behavior Retrieved from: Ashraf, T. (n.d) Organizational Behavior Retrieved from: Google, 2013 Leadership and Organizational Behavior Retrieved from: References This is a hanging indent. To keep the hanging indent format, triple click your mouse on this line of text and replace the information with your reference entry. You can use the Reference and Citation Examples (Center for Writing Excellence>Tutorials and Guides>Reference and Citation Examples) to help format your source information into a reference entry. The reference page always begins on the top of the next page after the conclusion.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Healthy Dieting Versus Atkins Diet Essays

Healthy Dieting Versus Atkins Diet Essays Healthy Dieting Versus Atkins Diet Paper Healthy Dieting Versus Atkins Diet Paper Healthy Dieting Versus Atkins Diet   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Obesity is currently one of the most serious health problems in the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 33.3% of men and 35.3% of women in the U.S. were considered overweight between 2005 and 2006. Between 2003 and 2004, meanwhile, the prevalence of obesity among children aged 12-19 years was said to have increased from 5% to 17.4%. A person is said to be overweight if his or her Body Mass Index (BMI) is between 25 and 29.9 and obese if he or she has a BMI of 30 or higher (CDC, n. pag.).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As a result, many Americans suffer from or die of lifestyle-oriented ailments that are otherwise highly-preventable. According to the American Heart Association, 451,326 Americans died of heart attack in 2004. Stroke claimed the lives of 275,000 Americans in 2002 (Internet Stroke Center, n. pag.). In the same year, 224,092 Americans died of diabetes (CDC, 6). Doctors attributed these mortality rates to sedentary lifestyles and high consumption of processed foods.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   These statistics prompted many Americans to assume various weight-loss regimens. The fitness industry in the U.S., in turn, capitalized on this need and offered a wide range of weight-loss strategies. From diet pills to liposuction, fitness centers throughout the country are making a killing out of making people thinner. The fitness industry was said to have earned $14.8 billion (2005) in the last ten years (Gold’s Gym, n. pag.).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   One of the most popular fad diets nowadays is the Atkins diet. In this two-week diet, consumption of proteins and fats is allowed, but all forms of carbohydrates must be eliminated. Atkins operates on the premise that obesity is a result of excessive carbohydrate intake. Although the human body burns both carbohydrates and fat for energy, it uses carbohydrates first. The Atkins diet believes that should there be fewer carbohydrates in the body, it will burn fat more efficiently (WebMD, n. pag.).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   But the Atkins diet is very controversial primarily because of its negative health effects. The lack of carbohydrates forces the body to go into a state of ketosis, wherein it generates energy by burning its own fat. Ketosis, in turn, results in weight loss through decreased appetite. However, ketosis may also cause bad breath and constipation in some people (WebMD, n. pag.).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Health and nutrition experts are concerned that Atkins will lead to more serious and long-term health problems. High intake of saturated fats may bring about higher risks of heart disease. Osteoporosis may likewise ensue due to low calcium consumption (dairy products are major sources of calcium). Nutritional deficiencies due to lack of vegetables and fruits in the diet may result in heart disease, cancer, premature aging and cataracts. Excessive consumption of protein may weaken bones or cause kidney ailments (Kellow, n. pag.).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The core flaws of the Atkins diet are its unrealistic goal when it comes to weight loss and its claims that clearly go against common logic. People subscribe to Atkins mainly because of celebrities who boast that it will make them â€Å"lose 13 pounds in just two weeks.† Furthermore, the argument that fried chicken is healthier than baked potato because the latter is rich in carbohydrates is just plain stupid. Many studies have already proven than animal fats are major causes of heart ailments. Those who want to lose weight must consult a doctor and or a nutritionist rather than listen to an actress who has no scientific integrity.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Dieters should instead follow a weight loss program that has realistic goals. A healthy weight loss regimen aims for slow and moderate weight loss rather than losing a large amount of weight in a short period of time. The loss of about 5% to 15% of one’s body weight within six months or more is safer and easier to maintain. Fitness experts say that shedding  ½ to 2 pounds a week is the safe rate of weight loss (WIN, n. pag.).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In order to lose weight safely and effectively, dieters must have a well-balanced food intake made up of fruits, vegetables and lean parts of meat and fish. They must also integrate weight loss into their everyday life through the following tips: a.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Keep a food diary. A food diary lists the foods a dieter has eaten throughout the day, as well as what time these were eaten, the feelings the dieter had when eating them and how the dieter can improve on his or her eating habits (WIN, n. pag.). b.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Shop from a list and shop when not hungry (WIN, n. pag.). c.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Store foods out of sight, or do not keep many high-fat, high-sugar foods in your home (WIN, n. pag.). d.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Eat smaller servings of regular meals. When eating in a restaurant, eat only half of your meal and take the rest home (WIN, n. pag.). e.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Eat at the table and turn off the TV (WIN, n. pag.). f.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Be realistic about weight-loss goals. Aim for a slow, modest weight loss (WIN, n. pag.). g.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Seek support from family and friends (WIN, n. pag.). h.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Expect setbacks and forgive yourself if you regain a few pounds (WIN, n. pag.). i.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Add moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical intensity to your weight-loss plan. Doing regular physical activity may help you control your weight (WIN, n. pag.). Attempting to lose weight, just like any endeavor, requires patience and realistic goals. Fad diets like Atkins may provide instant gratification to dieters, but at the expense of health problems with long-term effects. A healthy weight loss regimen may result in shedding fewer pounds at a longer period of time, but it will also bring about overall wellness. Thin is not in – fit is. â€Å"About Stroke: Stroke Statistics: U.S. Statistics.† 2008. Internet Stroke Center. 31 July 2008   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ â€Å"Better Health and You: Tips for Adults.† March 2008. Weight-Control Information Network   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   (WIN). 09 August 2008 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Fact Sheet: United States,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2005. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Control and Prevention, 2005. â€Å"Franchising: Why the Fitness Industry?† 2008. Gold’s Gym. 31 July 2008 â€Å"Heart Attack and Angina Statistics.† 2008. American Heart Association. 31 July 2008   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Kellow, Juliette. â€Å"The Atkins Diet under the Spotlight.† 2008. Weight Loss Resources, Ltd.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   08 August 2008 â€Å"Overweight and Obesity: Childhood Overweight.† 21 May 2008. Centers for Disease   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Control and Prevention (CDC). 31 July 2008 â€Å"Overweight and Obesity: Defining Overweight and Obesity.† 20 July 2008. Centers for   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 31 July 2008 â€Å"Overweight and Obesity: Introduction.† 28 July 2008. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 31 July 2008 â€Å"The Atkins Diet: What It Is.† 2008. WebMD. 08 August 2008   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

So and Such Differences in Grammar for ESL Learners

So and Such Differences in Grammar for ESL Learners Structures using such and so are similar in meaning, but different in construction. The main difference between the two structures is that such takes a noun phrase, whereas so takes an adjective. 'Such †¦ that' Such †¦ that takes a noun or modified noun in a noun phrase. That can be used following the noun phrase but is not required.​​ such adjective noun (that) Examples: The recording was such a disappointment that I didnt buy any more from that artist.It was such an expensive car that they didnt buy it. 'So †¦ that' So †¦ that takes an adjective. That can be used following the noun phrase but is not required. So adjective (that) Examples: The game was so fascinating (that) he played for hours.Our vacation apartment was so luxurious (that) we didnt want to leave. 'So' for Results So can also be used to express a result. In this case so is followed by a full clause: Examples: I had a lot of time so I visited the museum.She wasnt happy in her current position so she looked for a new job.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Customer attitude towards change in brands' ownership in the Literature review

Customer attitude towards change in brands' ownership in the automotive industry and how it affects car purchase intentions - Literature review Example The paper tells that with the continued elevation of completion within the current global marketplace because of globalization, introduction of new products has turned out to be a highly risky venture. One factor facilitating such high levels of risk is the implausible high cost of creating brands for product (new products), which can exceed 100 million dollars in some cases. Thus, firms are resulting into line extensions, brand extensions, as well as other new strategies of products, which allow their leveraging of the existing trademark equity with their relatively new products as a measure of minimizing the brand associated risks. Due to the increasing alarming studies about the possible harmful impacts of these, family brands’ extensions, the marketers’ attention has been captured by some recent new approaches. One such approach is the alliances of brands, which this paper seeks to examine in the automobile industry. In the present competitive world, brand alliances are often chosen as strategic options, which assume a diversity of forms ranging from simple advertising to ingredient branding. Some prominent illustrations of such collaborations of brands are evident across the daily life of consumers and spans diverse industries such as high technology, airlines, automobile industry, services, fast moving consumer products, as well as the fashion industry. In marketing, an attitude is a general assessment of products or services created over time. Attitude satisfies personal motives as well as affects buying and shopping habits of the consumers. Consumer attitudes compose of the consumers’ beliefs, behavioral intentions, and feelings about a product or service. This is within the marketing context, usually a retail or brand store. Beliefs, behavioral intentions, and feelings about a product are considered together as they are interdependent. They also represent the forces influencing the way in which consumers react towards an object. Th e consumer attitudes are an advantage as well as an obstacle to a marketer. Selecting to ignore or discount attitudes of the consumers concerning car brands in the development of marketing strategies guarantees less successful of the whole campaign. The perceptive marketers control their attitudes’ understanding in order to predict the consumers’ behavior. Such well-informed marketers understand the exact ways of distinguishing the variations between attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors while controlling all the three in development of effective marketing strategies. Most of the brand alliances or M&A occur between firms from the same nation and across international borders as well as between transnational brands as shall be seen in the automotive industry, which has witnessed a number of mergers and acquisitions. Such transnational alliances of brands allows business entities the permit of marketing as well as learning beyond their domestic scale markets, while maintaini ng high levels of domestic responsiveness. Both parties involved in brand alliance accrue benefits via increasing the rate of success for the product offering in the local markets while strengthening their local brands. This is realized via foreign investment and technology transfer between the alliance partners. However, the successfulness of such brand alliances must consider the attitudes of the customers in the target markets as these determine their effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to examine the alliances in the automotive industry. The emphasis is on examining the attitudes of the customers towards the increasing M&A in this industry as well as its impacts on their intentions of purchasing cars. The objective is determination of the relationship existing between the behavior and attitudes of the

Friday, November 1, 2019

International economics ( trade ) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

International economics ( trade ) - Essay Example This is so because they believed in a static international economic relations which means one can only gain if the other losses. Adam smith was the pioneer of classical economics who for the first time explained the term absolute advantage in the context of international economics in 1776. His theory of absolute advantage is based on a notion that the country should only manufacture and specialize in the goods which it can produce with the lower cost. Adam smith was a great proponent of free trade. His views of international trade are based on labor division and international specialization. Assume that there are two countries i.e. UK and USA which are trading two goods i.e. wheat and cloth internationally. UK produces wheat by hiring 10 labors whilst US has an advantage to produce the same amount of wheat by employing 6 labors. The above statistics reveal that US has labor specialization in the production of wheat and UK specialize in the production of cloth. This situation leads to trade between US and UK for wheat and cloth respectively. According to Smith’s theory of trade US should export wheat whilst UK should export cloth if they want to gain from the trade. Portugal has absolute advantage in wine and cloth production over UK. According to the theory UK will export cloth because its absolute disadvantage is less here as compared to the production of wine. Contrarily Portugal should export wine as its absolute advantage in case of wine is greater comparatively. Before trade production of wine requires 120 labors whilst cloth’s production involves 100 labors which means production of cloth is cheaper in UK. This is so because 1 unit of wine will cost 1.2 (120/100) units of cloths. More precisely, with a labor UK can either produce 1 unit of wine or 1.2 units of cloth. The situation is reverse in Portugal as it has absolute advantage in the production of both goods. However, the production of wine is cheaper