Thursday, January 30, 2020
Connotative Power Essay Self-Checked Activities Read the instructions for the following activities and type in your responses. Click the link to the Student Answer Sheet at the end of the lesson. Use the answers or sample responses to evaluate your own work. 1. Identifying Connotations a. Decide whether the bold word in each sentence is using a denotative or connotative meaning: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wendy hit the tennis ball. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Phil bought a cheap car at the used car lot. Ã¢â¬ ¢ They often serve a lot of strange foods at that restaurant. Ã¢â¬ ¢ I told my younger brother that he shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be such a baby. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Kevin studied most of the night for the SAT. Type your response here: | |Denotative or Connotative? | |hit |Connotative | |cheap |Denotative | |strange |Connotative | |baby |Denotative | |studied |Connotative | b. List the words from the previous activity that are denotative in meaning. For each word listed, rewrite the sentence that uses the word, replacing the denotative word with a connotative word (or phrase). The connotative meaning can be positive or negative. Type your response here: How did you do? Check a box below. Nailed It!Ã¢â¬âI included all of the same ideas as the model response on the Student Answer Sheet. Halfway ThereÃ¢â¬âI included most of the ideas in the model response on the Student Answer Sheet. Not GreatÃ¢â¬âI did not include any of the ideas in the model response on the Student Answer Sheet. 2. Forms of Connotations a. For each sentence listed below, state whether the sentence has a negative, positive, or neutral connotation and then rewrite the sentence so it has a different connotation. Type your response here: |Original sentence |Connotation |Revised Sentence | |They gobbled desserts at AlisonÃ¢â¬â¢s party. |Negative |They ate desserts at AlisonÃ¢â¬â¢s party. | |We watched the eagle fly above the mountains |Neutral |We patrolled the eagle fly above the mountains to the west. | |to the west. | | | |Dan and Marsha have accepted twelve foster |Positive |Dan and Marsha have okayedÃ twelve foster children into their | |children into their house. | |house. | |Tom is studying for a job in the medical |Neutral |Tom is pondering for a job in the medical profession. | |profession. | | | b. In 1999, Elie Wiesel gave a speech called Ã¢â¬Å"The Perils of IndifferenceÃ¢â¬ in Washington, DC, to address his experiences as a prisoner in the Auschwitz concentration camp and his concerns about societyÃ¢â¬â¢s indifference to the suffering that continues into the twenty-first century. Read the speech and find six examples of text (word or phrase) with a connotative meaning. Write these examples in the table, note whether the text has a negative or a positive connotation, and state the effect Wiesel was trying to achieve by using it. Type your response here: |Text from Speech |Connotation |Effect Wiesel Was Trying to Achieve | |Commander in Chief of the army that freed me |Positive |Show his respect to President Bill Clinton. | |and tens of thousands of others. | | | |Ã¢â¬Å"people who are indifferent have meaningless |Negative |People who donÃ¢â¬â¢t care, lives have no worth. | |livesÃ¢â¬ | | | |Ã¢â¬Å"In a way, to be indifferent to that suffering|Negative |People did not care about what they suffered through , so that | |is what makes the human being inhuman.Ã¢â¬ | |makes a person cruel. | |Humanity |Positive |Having all human rights. | |Indifferent |Negative |Not caring. | |Gratitude |Positive |Being thankful. | How did you do? Check a box below. Nailed It!Ã¢â¬âI included all of the same ideas as the model response on the Student Answer Sheet. Halfway ThereÃ¢â¬âI included most of the ideas in the model response on the Student Answer Sheet. Not GreatÃ¢â¬âI did not include any of the ideas in the model response on the Student Answer Sheet. 3. Explaining Connotations a. Explain several examples of connotation in Langston HughesÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"Will V-Day Be Me-Day Too?Ã¢â¬ Type your response here: There was positive connotation, where he talked about fighting for the United States. There was negative connotation, where he was talking about watching people die. There was neutral connotation, where he was talking about winning the world and them having theie own Ã¢â¬Å"V-Day.Ã¢â¬ b. How does Hughes use connotative language to compare the plight of African Americans to that of the Jews during World War II? Type your response here: How did you do? Check a box below. Nailed It!Ã¢â¬âI included all of the same ideas as the model response on the Student Answer Sheet. Halfway ThereÃ¢â¬âI included most of the ideas in the model response on the Student Answer Sheet. Not GreatÃ¢â¬âI did not include any of the ideas in the model response on the Student Answer Sheet. Teacher-Graded Activities Write a response for each of the following activities. Check the Evaluation section at the end of this document to make sure you have met the expected criteria for the assignment. When you have finished, submit your work to your teacher. 1. Denotation and Connotation in Literary Works a. Write down the titles and authors of three works you will examine for use of connotative and denotative language. Choose the three works from among the novels, short stories, poems, speeches, essays, and plays you read in class this year. Type your response here: b. Read or review each text, looking for examples of denotative and connotative language. In the chart, write two examples of denotative language and two examples of connotative language for each of the three works you selected. Then, for the examples of connotative language, describe the effect, or emotional response, the author was trying to achieve by this use of language. Type your response here: |Literary Work |Denotative Language |Connotative Language (with page #) and Effect Achieved | |(Title/Author/Genre) |(with page #) | | |Out-Out by Robert Frost | | | | | | | |Desert Places by Robert Frost |BENIGHTED; |NIGHT; A negative connotation; Darkness or visionless | | | |SNOW; Also a negative connotation; Cold | |The Snow Man by Wallace Stevens | |CRUSTED; | | | |GLITTER; | Evaluation Your teacher will use this rubric to evaluate the completeness of your work as well as the clarity of thinking you exhibit. | |Concepts | |Distingui|The student has identified three literature titles and their authors. | |shed |The student has accurately identified two examples of denotative language and two examples of connotative language for each work of | |(4 |literature. | |points) |For each example, the student has accurately described the effect or emotional response achieved by the author. | |Proficien|The student has identified three literature titles and their authors. | |t (3 |The student has adequately identified two examples of denotative language and two examples of connotative language for each work of | |points) |literature. | | |For each example, the student has adequately described the effect or emotional response achieved by the author. | |Developin|The student has identified three or fewer literature titles and their authors. | |g (2 |The student has tried to identify some examples of denotative and connotative language for the works of literature. | |points) |For some examples, the student has tried to describe the effect or emotional response achieved by the author. | |Beginning|The student has not identified three literature titles and their authors. | |(1 point)|The student has not identified examples of denotative and connotative language for each work of literature. | | |For some examples, the student has failed to describe the effect or emotional response achieved by the author. |
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Distractions In Life " I left the woods for as good a reason as I went there. Perhaps, it seemed to me that I had several more lives to live, and could not spare any time for that one." -Henry David Thoreau Many times I would find myself in a state of mass confusion. It was as if I had no perception of where I would go with my life. I was trapped in a realm of things which were unfamiliar to me. When I tried to experience these new adventures I ended up back where I started in a slow state of death and decay. New ideas and thoughts seemed impossible for me to grasp. It seemed that anything that was new to me was too much of a hassle. How could I move on in a positive manner in this state. All that I wanted to do was the same old thing over and over like a broken record repeating itself over and over until it wore itself out. I finally, wore myself out. I started to feel as if I was the worn out record player and that I would be dropped into the trash when I stopped working the way I was supposed to. After a short while I found some inspiration from an unknown point. I had realized I would not succeed in this battle called life without serious work. The only one who could help me was me. I knew that I wasn't meant to do the exact same thing for the rest of my life. I had to escape this bottomless pit and move on to the next adventure. "I had several more lives to live and could not spare any time for that one." I moved on to another life. My "new" life was very hard to get used to, but was well worth the trouble. I began trying new things and actually enjoyed it. I realize now that I only have a short time in my life and I have to make a
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
MKTG 390, Exam 3 1. Marketers often mislead consumers by misrepresenting marketing research findings in ads and sales presentations. What are six ways in which they do this? (1). Incomplete or misleading reporting of survey or product testing results; (2). Reporting only the percentage of survey respondents answering in a given way (for example, Ã¢â¬Å"55% of those surveyed saidÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ) but not the absolute numbers or the sample size; (3). Misleading specification of the competitors tested in reported comparative tests; (4).Using survey techniques that confuse respondents or bias their answers, but not revealing the questions and interview procedure. Sometimes corporate researchers intentionally design the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product testing and marketing research studies so as to generate deceptive findings. (1). Testing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug against a comparison during theta is well known not to work well. (2). Testing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug against too low a dose of t he comparison product, to make the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug appear Ã¢â¬Å"more effectiveÃ¢â¬ , or against too high a dose of the comparison product to make the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug appear Ã¢â¬Å"less toxicÃ¢â¬ . 3). Reporting only that part of a product trial that favors the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug, and hiding the rest of the results. (4). Funding many different studies about the same product but reporting only the one or two that make the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product look desirable. 1) Tell lies about risks or limitations 2) Omit disclosing risks or limitations entirely 3) Bury or conceal disclosures among other information 4) Report only % of respondents who answer in a specific way 5) Incomplete reporting of testing results 6) Using survey techniques that confuse respondents 2.Explain the Ã¢â¬Å"number of subgroupsÃ¢â¬ method for determining sample size. In any sample size determination problem, consideration must be given to the number and anticipated size of various subgroups o f the total sample that must be analyzed and about which statistical inferences must be made. For example, a researcher might decide that a sample of 400 is quite adequate overall. However, if male and female respondents must be analyzed separately and the sample is expected to be 50 percent male and 50 percent female, then the expected sample size for each subgroup is only 200.Is this number adequate for making the desired statistical inferences about the characteristics of the two groups? If the results are to be analyzed by both sex and age, the problem gets even more complicated. Assume that it is important to analyze four subgroups of the total sample: men under 35, men 35 and over, women under 35, and women 35 and over. If each group is expected to make up about 25 percent of the total sample, a sample of 400 will include only 100 respondents in each subgroup.The problem is that as sample size gets smaller, sampling error gets larger, and it becomes more difficult to tell whet her an observed difference between two groups is a real difference or simply a reflection ofsampling error. Other things being equal, the larger the number of subgroups to be analyzed, the larger the required total sample size. It has been suggested that a sample should provide, at a minimum, 100 or more respondents in each major subgroup and 20 to 50 respondents in each of the less important subgroups. Number of Subgroups to Be Analyzed . SubgroupsÃ¢â¬âthe number and anticipated size of various subgroups of the total sample that must be analyzed and statistical inferences must be made should be seriously considered. b. Sample SizeÃ¢â¬âdependent on the number of subgroups to be analyzedÃ¢â¬âthe more needed the larger the required total sample size. c. Minimum NeedsÃ¢â¬â100 or more respondents in each major subgroup and 20 to 50 respondents in each of the less important subgroups. 3. You need to hire a marketing research firm to work with you on a new product research pro ject.Five factors you might consider in choosing among different research firms are the price they charge, their apparent honesty, their punctuality (ability to meet deadlines on a project), their flexibility, and their capacity to deliver the specified work. What are five other important factors for you to consider in making your choice? Briefly explain why each of these five factors is important. Maintains client confidentiality Provide high-quality output Responsive to the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs High quality-control standards Customer oriented in interaction with clients Keep clients informed throughout a project (1).Maintains client confidentiality (2). Delivers against project specifications (3). Provides high-quality output (4). Is responsive to the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs (5). Has high quality-control standards (6). Is customer oriented in interactions with client (7). Keeps the client informed throughout a project 4. What two aspects of a research firmÃ¢â¬â¢s chosen research method and data collection process can decrease the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to meet a deadline for completing a research project? What two aspects of a research firmÃ¢â¬â¢s internal management operations can decrease the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to meet key deadlines for a research project? 1) A discussion of questionnaires would not be complete without mentioning their impact on costs and profitability. Factors affecting costs and profits include overestimating, overbidding, incidence rate, roadblocks to completed interviews, and premature interview terminations. (2) Generally research firms do not have design and analytical capabilities. This means that their clients may, on occasion, need to seek other providers to meet their fully service needs. It also could decrease the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ capacity to meet key deadlines for a research project. not pretty sure yet) 5. A research firmÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"flexibilityÃ¢â¬ is an important factor for clients to consider in deciding whether t o hire that firm. Why is flexibility important and what information would you seek to learn about a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s flexibility? Flexibility is important to see how a firm reacts in a crisis-management situation. Unexpected happenings occur often and flexibility shows how a firm will react to these situations. Flexibility also refers to a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s control over internal operations, and how they handle personnel issues, such as personnel turnover. . Research management has eight important goals. Three of these are (a) excellent communication, (b) staff development and retention, and (c) cost management. What are four other goals in successful research management? Briefly explain these four goals. (1). Organizing the supplier firm: large suppliers have separate departments for sampling, questionnaire programming, field, coding, tabulation, statistics, and sales? Even the client service staff may be separate from those who manage projects and write questionnaires and reports.Each of these departments has a head who is expert in the functions of that department and manages work assignments within the department. So in response to problems like this, some companies are organizing by teams. (2). Data Quality Management: this is the most important objective of the research management. Marketing research managers can help assure high-quality data by having policies and procedures in place to minimize source of error. Marketing researchers must not only attempt to minimize error, but must also do a better job of explaining the term margin error.Also, managers must have in place procedures to ensure the careful proofing of all text, chart, and graphs in written reports and other communications provided to the clients. (3). Time management:it is very important becasue clients often have a specified time schedule that they must meet. Two problems that can play havoc with time schedules are inaccuracies in estimates of the incidence rate and the interview length. The pro ject manager must have early information regarding whether or not a project can be completed on time.Time management requires that systems be put in place to inform management as to whether or not the project is on schedule. (4). Client Profitability Management: while marketing research departments may be able to focus on doing Ã¢â¬Å"on-demandÃ¢â¬ projects for internal clients, marketing research suppliers have to think about profitability. Customer Research Incorporated (CRI) divided its clients into four categories based on the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived value to CRIÃ¢â¬â¢s bottom line. CRI spent too much time and too many valuable employee resources on too many unprofitable customers. (5).Outsourcing:One way that research firms are cutting costs is outsourcing. The term outsourcing as used in this text is having personnel in another country perform some, or all, of the functions involved in a marketing research project. When a research firm sets up a wholly-owned foreign sub sidiary, it is called captive outsourcing. Simple outsourcing is where a domestic research company enters into a relationship with a foreign company that provides a variety of marketing research functions. For example, Cross-Tab Services of Mumbai, India, offers online survey programming, data processing, data analysis, and other services.Other services that are beginning to be outsourced are data management and panel management. A number of issues need to be considered when one is outsourcing, as shown in Exhibit 15. 10. India is most likely the world leader in marketing research outsourcing firms. Over 110 marketing research outsourcing firms in India (noncaptive) employ over 9,000 people. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues Research management has seven important goals beyond excellent communication: building an effective organization, assurance of data quality, adherence to time schedules, cost control, client profitability management, and staff management and development. ) Building an effective organizationÃ¢â¬âhaving an organization in which people work in their areas of highest strength (technical people doing tech stuff and charismatic people doing customer service activities) 2) Assurance of data qualityÃ¢â¬âto ensure the integrity of the data produced 3) Adherence to time schedules (time management)Ã¢â¬âkeep the project on schedule with specific time schedules the client has specified 4) Client profitability managementÃ¢â¬âprojects for clients are a priority but the bottom line is the most important; make sure the clients youÃ¢â¬â¢re serving are maximizing profitability and not stretching yourself too thin. . To retain key staff members, a research firm can help them develop their professional skills and meet their goals. What are three specific things a research supply firm can do to help retain key marketing research staff members, beyond paying them well? a. Conduct regular performance reviews that give continuing feedback on a job well d oneÃ¢â¬âor offer ways to improve. Many staff members think their bosses play favorites during performance reviews. So department heads try to use clear performance criteria for each position and offer objective appraisals for everyone. . Offer public recognition for great work. Some groups mention great work during staff meetings; post client comments on a Ã¢â¬Å"wall of fameÃ¢â¬ in the department; have bosses send personal letters to staff members at home, praising their work; hold pizza parties for teams that have performed Ã¢â¬Å"above and beyondÃ¢â¬ ; or simply have the head of the department stop by a staff memberÃ¢â¬â¢s office to offer congratulations and thanks. c. Give differential pay raises that recognize superior performance.While across theboard, uniform pay increases are often used (because they are the easiest to administer), they do not recognize the high performersÃ¢â¬âand they allow the lower performers to believe they are doing adequate work. d. Vary t he work. In order to keep everyone interested, some research groups identify one-off projects and then allow staff members to volunteer for them. Examples of special projects could include a project that will feed into the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic plans, formation of a high-visibility cross-functional team, or a project that uses a new technique or addresses an unusually interesting topic. 8.What is Ã¢â¬Å"stratified samplingÃ¢â¬ ? What are the three steps involved in implementing a stratified sample? A stratified sampling procedure divides a population by a specific strata (some demographic characteristic pertinent to the population of interest) then people are chosen randomly within each stratum, usually proportionate to the total number of people in each stratum. Stratified samples are probability samples that are distinguished by the following procedural steps: (1). The original, or parent, population is divided into two or more mutually exclusive and exhaustive subsets (for ex ample, male and female). (2).Simple random samples of elements from the two or more subsets are chosen independently of each other. Three steps are involved in implementing a properly stratified sample: (1). Identify salient (important) demographic or classification factors. Factors that are correlated with the behavior of interest. For example, there may be reason to believe that men and women have different average consumption rates of a particular product. To use gender as a basis for meaningful stratifi cation, the researcher must be able to show with actual data that there are significant differences in the consumption levels of men and women.In this manner, various salient factors are identifi ed. Research indicates that, as a general rule, after the six most important factors have been identifi ed, the identification of additional salient factors adds little in the way of increased sampling efficiency. (2). Determine what proportions of the population fall into the various su bgroups under each stratum (for example, if gender has been determined to be a salient factor, determine what proportion of the population is male and what proportion is female).Using these proportions, the researcher can determine how many respondents are required from each subgroup. However, before a final determination is made, a decision must be made as to whether to use proportional allocation or disproportional, or optimal, allocation. (3). Select separate simple random samples from each stratum. This process is implemented somewhat differently than traditional simple random sampling. Assume that the stratified sampling plan requires that 240 women and 160 men be interviewed.The researcher will sample from the total population and keep track of the number of men and women interviewed. At some point in the process, when 240 women and 127 men have been interviewed, the researcher will interview only men until the target of 160 men is reached. In this manner, the process generate s a sample in which the proportion of men and women conforms to the allocation scheme derived in step 2. Stratified samples are not used as often as one might expect in marketing research. The reason is that the information necessary to properly stratify the sample is usually not available in advance.Stratification cannot be based on guesses or hunches but must be based on hard data regarding the characteristics of the population and the relationship between these characteristics and the behavior under investigation. Stratified samples are frequently used in political polling and media audience research. In those areas, the researcher is more likely to have the information necessary to implement the stratification process. 9. The American Marketing AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s Code of Professional Ethics cites data collection principles that all marketing research firms should follow.One is Ã¢â¬Å"treat the respondent with respect and do not influence a respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion or attitu de on any issue through direct or indirect attempts, including the framing of questions. Ã¢â¬ What are six other data collection principles that are cited in the AMA Code? Explain each of these briefly. (2). will conduct themselves in a professional manner and ensure privacy and confidentiality. (3). will ensure that all formulas used during bidding and reporting during the data collection process conform with the MRA/Council of American Survey Research Organizations (CASRO) Incidence Guidelines. 4). will make factually correct statements to secure cooperation and will honor promises made during the interview to respondents, whether verbal or written (5). will give respondents the opportunity to refuse to participate in the research when there is a possibility they may be identifiable even without the use of their name or address (e. g. , because of the size of the population being sampled). (6). will not use information to identify respondents without the permission of the respo ndent except to those who check the data or are involved in processing the data.If such permission is given, the interviewer must record it, or a respondent must do so, during all Internet studies, at the time the permission is secured. (7). will adhere to and follow these principles when conducting online research: Ã ¦ RespondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ rights to anonymity must be safeguarded. Ã ¦ Unsolicited e-mail must not be sent to those requesting not to receive any further e-mail. Ã ¦ Researchers interviewing minors must adhere to the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). Ã ¦ Before collecting, using, or disclosing personal information from a child, the researcher must obtain verifiable parental consent from the childÃ¢â¬â¢s parent. 8). for Internet research, will not use any data in any way contrary to the providerÃ¢â¬â¢s published privacy statement without permission from the respondent. (9). will respect the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s right to withdraw or refuse to co operate at any stage of the study and will not use any procedure or technique to coerce or imply that cooperation is obligatory. (10)will obtain and document respondent consent when it is known that the personally identifiable information of the respondent may be passed by audio, video, or Interactive Voice Response to a third party for legal or other purposes. 11). will obtain permission and document consent of a parent, legal guardian, or responsible guardian before interviewing children 13 years of age or younger. Prior to obtaining permission, the interviewer should divulge the subject matter, length of interview, and other special tasks that may be required of the respondent. (12). will ensure that all interviewers comply with any laws or regulations that may be applicable when contacting or communicating to any minor (18 years old or younger) regardless of the technology or methodology utilized. (13). ill not reveal any information that could be used to identify clients withou t their written authorization. (14). will ensure that companies, their employees, and subcontractors involved in the data collection process adhere to reasonable precautions so that multiple surveys are not conducted at the same time with a specific respondent without explicit permission from the sponsoring company or companies. (15). will consider all research materials provided by the client or generated as a result of materials provided by the client to be the property of the client.These materials will not be disseminated or disposed of without the verbal or written permission of the client. (16). will, as time and availability permit, give their client the opportunity to monitor studies in progress to ensure research quality. (17). will not represent a nonresearch activity to be opinion and marketing research, such as: Ã ¦ the compilation of lists, registers, or data banks of names and addresses for any nonresearch purposes (e. g. , canvassing or fund raising). Ã ¦ industrial , commercial, or any other form of espionage. Ã ¦ the acquisition of information for use by credit rating services or similar organizations. sales or promotional approaches to the respondent. Ã ¦ the collection of debts. Companies engaged in data collection: (1) Will treat the respondent and the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions or beliefs with respect, and not influence a respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion or belief on any issue through direct or indirect behavior, including the framing of questions or verbal or non-verbal reactions to what a respondent says. (2) Will ensure privacy and confidentiality (3) Will ensure that respondents are given information needed for Ã¢â¬Å"informed consentÃ¢â¬ to participate, e. , purpose, tasks, type of questions, length, right to refuse/withdraw. (4) Will make truthful statements to secure cooperation and will honor promises made before and during the interview to respondents, verbal or written (5) Will explain, promise and respect the respondentÃ¢â¬â ¢s right to withdraw or refuse to answer at any stage of the study, and will not try to coerce or to imply that cooperation and completion is obligatory. (6) Will give respondents the opportunity to refuse to participate when there is a possibility they may be identifiable even without using name or address (e. . , a small population of respondents). (7) Will obtain permission and document consent of a parent, legal guardian, or responsible guardian before interviewing any person under 13 years old. (8) Will disclose the studyÃ¢â¬â¢s subject matter, length of interview, and special tasks required of before participation begins, to parents and guardians of children under 13. (9) Will not misrepresent as opinion research or marketing research any non-research activity. (10)Will not disclose to respondents any information that could identify a client without the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s permission. ) Ensure privacy and confidentiality. 2) Assure that respondents are given information needed for Ã¢â¬Å"informed consentÃ¢â¬ to participate, e. g. , purpose, tasks, types of questions, length, right to refuse/withdraw. 3) Make truthful statements to secure cooperation and honor promises made before and during the interview to respondents verbal or written. 4) Explain and promise respect of the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s right to withdraw or refuse to answer any stage of the study and will not try to coerce or to imply that cooperation and completion is obligatory. ) Give respondents the opportunity to refuse to participate when there is a possibility they may be identifiable even without using their name or address. 6) Will obtain permission and document consent of a parent, legal guardian, or responsible guardian before interviewing any person under 13 years old. 10. Snowball sampling is one method for doing Ã¢â¬Å"non-probability samplingÃ¢â¬ . Explain how and why Ã¢â¬Å"snowball samplingÃ¢â¬ is done. How? In snowball samples, sampling procedures are used to select addit ional respondents on the basis of referrals from initial respondents.This procedure is used to sample from low-incidence or rare populationsÃ¢â¬âthat is, populations that make up a very small percentage of the total population. The costs of finding members of these rare populations may be so great that the researcher is forced to use a technique such as snowball sampling. For example, suppose an insurance company needed to obtain a national sample of individuals who have switched from the indemnity form of healthcare coverage to a health maintenance organization in the past 6 months. It would be necessary to sample a very large number of consumers to identify 1,000 that fall into this population.It would be far more economical to obtain an initial sample of 200 people from the population of interest and have each of them provide the names of an average of four other people to complete the sample of 1,000. Why? The main advantage of snowball sampling is a dramatic reduction in sea rch costs. However, this advantage comes at the expense of sample quality. The total sample is likely to be biased because the individuals whose names were obtained from those sampled in the initial phase are likely to be very similar to those initially sampled.As a result, the sample may not be a good cross section of the total population. There is general agreement that some limits should be placed on the number of respondents obtained through referrals, although there are no specific rules regarding what these limits should be. This approach may also be hampered by the fact that respondents may be reluctant to give referrals. Snowball SamplingÃ¢â¬âinvolves the selection of additional respondents on the basis of referrals from the initial respondents. a. Main advantageÃ¢â¬â the dramatic reduction in search costs. b.DisadvantageÃ¢â¬âreduction in sample quality. Snowball sampling procedures ask respondents to recommend other individuals who share the characteristic of inter est. If you are looking for individuals who have been a victim of a particular crime, and you know there is a victim support network in the area, you might use this technique. There may be no other way to obtain the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s names. The danger associated with this type of sample is, of course, the bias that may occur because of the method. The sample may not be a good cross section, also respondents may be reluctant to give referrals. 1. What are the first five steps in the questionnaire design process? Explain briefly what each step involves. 1. Determine survey objectives, resources, and constraints: know objective and information want to get out of the survey 2. Determine the data collection method: Way to gather info such as internet, phone ectÃ¢â¬ ¦ 3. Determine the question response format: open ended, yes/no, multiple choice (check al that apply to you, age/ethnicity questions), scaled-response questions 4. Decide on the question wording: clear, avoids bias, willin gness to answer 5.Establish questionnaire flow and layout: screening questions to find people qualified for the survey, first question brings in interest, capitalize important things Step 1: Determine Survey Objectives, Resources, and Constraints The research process often begins when a marketing manager, brand manager, or new product development specialist has a need for decision-making information that is not available. a. Survey objectivesÃ¢â¬âshould be spelled out as clearly and precise as possible, as well as the available resources and budget and other constraints.Step 2: Determine the Data-Collection Method Given the variety of ways in which survey data can be gathered, such as via the Internet, telephone, mail, or self-administration, the research method will have an impact on questionnaire design. An in-person interview in a mall will have constraints (such as a time limitation) not encountered with an Internet questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire must be exp licit and is usually rather short; because no interviewer will be present, respondents will not have the opportunity to clarify a question.A telephone interview may require a rich verbal description of a concept to make certain the respondent understands the idea being discussed. In contrast, an Internet survey can show the respondent a picture or video or demonstrate a concept. Step 3: Determine the Question Response Format Once the data-collection method has been determined, a decision must be made regarding the types of questions to be used in the survey. Three major types of questions are used in marketing research: open-ended, closed-ended, and scaled-response questions. Step 4: Decide on the the Question Wording 1). Make Sure the Wording Is Clear a. The questions must be stated so that it means the same thing to all respondents. b. Clarity is the goal. The questionnaire designer must use terminology native to the target respondent group and not use research jargon. It should c ustom-tailor the wording to the target respondent group. c. State the purpose of the survey. d. Avoid double-barreled questionsÃ¢â¬âtwo questions in one. (2). Avoid Biasing the Respondent a. Leading questions. b. Biased wording of the question. c. Sponsor identification early in the interviewing process. (3).Consider the RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Ability to Answer the Questions a. A respondent may have never acquired the information to answer the question. b. A respondent may have forgotten details. c. To avoid this problem, keep the referenced time periods short. (4). Consider the RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Willingness to Answer the Question. a. Embarrassing topic must be phrased in a careful manner to minimize measurement error. b. Ask the question in the third person. c. Ask about Ã¢â¬Å"most peopleÃ¢â¬ . d. Using counterbiasing statements techniqueÃ¢â¬âstate that the behavior or attitude is not unusual prior to asking the question.Step 5: Establish Questionnaire Flow and Layout (1). Use Screening Questions to Identify Qualified Respondents (2). Begin with a Question That Gets the RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Interest (3). Ask General Questions First (4). Ask Questions That Require Ã¢â¬Å"WorkÃ¢â¬ in the Middle (5). Insert Ã¢â¬Å"PromptersÃ¢â¬ at Strategic Points (6). Position Sensitive, Threatening, and Demographic Questions at the End (7). Allow Plenty of Space for Open-Ended Responses (8). Put Instructions in Capital Letters (9). Use a Proper Introduction and Closing 12. Step 6 in the questionnaire design process is Ã¢â¬Å"Evaluate the questionnaireÃ¢â¬ .What are three key issues in evaluating a draft of the questionnaire? (1) Is the Question Necessary? Perhaps the most important criterion for this phase of questionnaire development is the necessity for a given question. Sometimes researchers and brand managers want to ask questions because Ã¢â¬Å"they were on the last survey we did like thisÃ¢â¬ or because Ã¢â¬Å"it would be nice to know. Ã¢â¬ Excessive numbers of demographic questions are very common. Asking for education data, numbers of children in multiple age categories, and extensive demographics on the spouse simply is not warranted by the nature of many studies.Each question must serve a purpose. Unless it is a screener, an interest generator, or a required transition, it must be directly and explicitly related to the stated objectives of the particular survey. Any question that fails to satisfy at least one of these criteria should be omitted. (2) Is the Questionnaire Too Long? At this point, the researcher should role-play the survey, with volunteers acting as respondents. Although there is no magic number of interactions, the length of time it takes to complete the questionnaire should be averaged over a minimum of five trials.Any questionnaire to be administered in a mall or over the telephone should be a candidate for cutting if it averages longer than 20 minutes. Sometimes mall-intercept interviews can run slightly l onger if an incentive is provided to the respondent. Most Internet surveys should take less than 15 minutes to complete. Common incentives are movie tickets, pen and pencil sets, and cash or checks. The use of incentives often actually lowers survey costs because response rates increase and terminations during the interview decrease.If checks are given out instead of cash, the canceled checks can be used to create a list of survey participants for follow-up purposes. A technique that can reduce the length of questionnaires is called a split-questionnaire design. It can be used when the questionnaire is long and the sample size is large. The questionnaire is split into one core component (such as demographics, usage patterns, and psychographics) and a number of subcomponents. Respondents complete the core component plus a randomly assigned subcomponent. (3) Will the Questions Provide the Information Needed to Accomplish the Research Objectives?The researcher must make certain that th e questionnaire contains sufficient numbers and types of questions to meet the decision-making needs of management. A suggested procedure is to carefully review the written objectives for the research project and then write each question number next to the objective that the particular question will address. For example, question 1 applies to objective 3, question 2 to objective 2, and so forth. If a question cannot be tied to an objective, the researcher should determine whether the list of objectives is complete.If the list is complete, the question should be omitted. If the researcher finds an objective with no questions listed beside it, appropriate questions should be added. Tips for writing a good questionnaire are provided in the Practicing Marketing Research feature on page 263. (1). Is the Question Necessary? a. Each question must serve a purpose. b. Is it directly and explicitly related to the stated objectives of the particular survey? (2). Is the Questionnaire Too Long? a. Mall or telephone administered questionnaires should be limited to 20 minutes. b. Internet surveys should be less than 15 minutes. . Incentives can lower the cost of surveys because the response rates increase and terminations decrease. (3). Will the Questions Provide the Information Needed to Accomplish the Research Objectives? a. Review the written objectives for the research projectÃ¢â¬âwrite each question number next to the objective that the particular question will address. b. If the question cannot be tied to an objectiveÃ¢â¬âdetermine if the list of objectives is complete. If complete, eliminate the question. c. If an objective has no questions, then appropriate questions should be added. 13.Compare Ã¢â¬Å"probability samplingÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"non-probability samplingÃ¢â¬ . What is probability sampling? What is non-probability sampling? Why is non-probability sampling used more often than probability sampling in actual marketing research projects? Probability samp les are selected in such a way that every element of the population has a known, nonzero likelihood of selection. Simple random sampling is the best known and most widely used probability sampling method. With probability sampling, the researcher must closely adhere to precise selection procedures that avoid arbitrary or biased selection of sample elements.When these procedures are followed strictly, the laws of probability hold, allowing calculation of the extent to which a sample value can be expected to differ from a population value. This difference is referred to as sampling error. The debate continues regarding whether online panels produce probability samples. Nonprobability samples are those in which specific elements from the population have been selected in a nonrandom manner. Nonrandomness results when population elements are selected on the basis of convenienceÃ¢â¬âbecause they are easy or inexpensive to reach.Purposeful nonrandomness occurs when a sampling plan syste matically excludes or over represents certain subsets of the population. For example, if a sample designed to solicit the opinions of all women over the age of 18 were based on a telephone survey conducted during the day on weekdays, it would systematically exclude working women. See the Practicing Marketing Research feature above. On the other hand, probability samples have a number of disadvantages, the most important of which is that they are usually more expensive than nonprobability samples of the same size.The rules for selection increase interviewing costs and professional time spent in designing and executing the sample design. Non-probability sampling VS Probability sampling Disadvantages of Probability Samples a) More expensive than nonprobability samples b) Take more time and money to design and execute. Advantages of Nonprobability Samples a) Cost less than probability samples. b) Can be conducted more quickly than probability samples. c) Are reasonably representative if executed in a reasonable manner. , 14. Step 8 in the questionnaire design process is Ã¢â¬Å"Pretest and ReviseÃ¢â¬ . a) How do you do a pretest a first-draft of a questionnaire? (b) Under what conditions can this step be skipped? (a) A pretest is done by the interviewers who will be working on the job and is administered to target respondents for the study. The pretest should be conducted in the same mode as the final interview. In a pretest, researchers look for misinterpretations by respondents, poor skip patterns, additional alternatives for pre-coded and closed-ended questions and general respondent reaction to the interview. Interviewers want find out if respondents were confused at all during the interview. b) There are NO reasons to not pre-test! No survey should be conducted without a pretest. 15. In a well-organized questionnaire, there is a logical flow of questions. The first questions are called Ã¢â¬Å"ScreenersÃ¢â¬ . After Screeners are asked, what types of questio ns are asked in the next four sections of the questionnaire, in correct order? 16. In class and a handout, we discussed a method called Ã¢â¬Å"Information AccelerationÃ¢â¬ that companies can use to understand how people may react to a complex innovative product (e. g. , new self-driving car; new medical diagnostic system) when it is marketed sometime in the future. i) Explain the goals of the Ã¢â¬Å"Information AccelerationÃ¢â¬ method; (ii) Explain how to do the Ã¢â¬Å"Information AccelerationÃ¢â¬ method Ã¢â¬â what are its key features? (i) The goals of the Ã¢â¬Å"Information AccelerationÃ¢â¬ method (1)Test how exposure to an overall set of product-related messages influences consumer attitude toward the product, especially when test ads are mingled with non-marketing messages from other sources, eg, news articles, journals, competing ads, etc (2)Test how exposure to a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall set of marketing materials affect consumers beliefs and impressions.For exa mple, does exposure to the assorted marketing messages for a product launch (TV ads, magazine ads; mailed brochures; point-of Ã¢â¬âpurchase information; sales presentations; packaging) confuse consumers or mislead them about some aspect of the product, eg, risks, limitations, the key usage benefits? (ii)How: IA places consumers in a Ã¢â¬Å"virtualÃ¢â¬ learning and decision making environment, and stimulates (via computer) a set of information sources potentially available to a consumer, including advertising; news articles; showroom or store visits; and world-of-mouth opinions from other consumers and product experts.The method Ã¢â¬Å"acceleratesÃ¢â¬ the flows of information consumers may encounter over a long time period in the future. Key features: (1) Realistic simulation of a complex media and message environment that consumers may face in the future when deciding about a new innovation, (2) Vivid and concrete renditions of the messages and the message-exposure Stimulat ions (3) Uses computer-interactive technology to decrease participant fatigue. (4) Respondent have access to a full assortment of information.They can choose which to look at or ignore; the order of their information search; the time they spend on the sources of information they consult (5) But, the marketer controls the overall time available for the search, as incentive to consumers to set priorities as they search (6) Can do Ã¢â¬Å"after-only with control groupÃ¢â¬ experiments that vary product features. Product-related marketing materials, types of messages from non-marketing sources 17. In addition to Ã¢â¬Å"number of subgroupsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"traditional statistical methodsÃ¢â¬ , what are (1). Budget AvailableThe sample size for a project is often determined by the budget available. The budget brand manager have, after deducting of other project cost, the amount remaining determines the size of the sample that can be surveyed. If the dollars available will not produced an adequate sample size, then management must make a decision:either additional funds must be found or the project should be canceled. Financial constrains challenge the researcher to develop research designs that will generate data of adequate quality for decision making purchases at low cost.This approaches forces the researcher to explore alternative data-collection approaches and to carefully consider the value of information in relations to its cost. (2). Rule of Thumb Potential clients may specify in the RFP about the sample size they want. Sometimes, this is number based on desired sampling error. In other cases, it is based on nothing more than past experience. The justification for the specific sample size may boil down to a Ã¢â¬Å"gut feelingÃ¢â¬ that a particular sample size is necessary or appropriate.If the researcher determine that the sample size requested is not adequate to support the objectives of the proposed research, then she or he has a professional responsi bility to present arguement for a larger sample size to the client and let the client make the final decision. (1). Budget Available a. Sample SizeÃ¢â¬âfor a project often is determined by the budget available. Sample size, therefore, is often determined backward. b. Alternative Data Collection ApproachesÃ¢â¬âbudget available approach forces the research to explore and consider the value of information in relation to its cost. 2). Rules of Thumb a. Potential clients may specify they want a sample of a specific size. b. Sometimes based on some consideration of sampling error, sometimes based on past experience and sample sizes used for similar studies in the past. c. If that the sample size requested is not adequate, the researcher has a professional responsibility to present arguments for a larger sample size to the client and let the client make the final decision. 18. Why is it so important for a marketing research firm to maintain high confidentiality about all aspects of i ts clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ projects?Why is it sometimes difficult for a marketing research firm to maintain high confidentiality? Because participants of research projects share valuable and sometimes sensitive information with the researcher, and they trust that the researcher will ensure that their identity is protected. It is imperative that no one but the researchers coordinating and conducting the interviews or focus groups knows the names of participants. No one other than the researchers should have access to the responses from individual participants.It is critical that no one but the necessary researchers have the ability to match the names of individuals to their responses. It is hard to maintain confidentiality because sometimes companies share information about customers with partners and affiliates. Also, some companies sell information they have gathered on customers to outside companies. 19. What steps should be taken to assure that the response data from each respondent in a survey are kept confidential? (1) Develop a code sheet, listing the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ names with a code next to each name, assigned by the researcher, which uniquely identifies each respondent.This code, not the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s name, will be written on the form for talking interview notes or the questionnaire itself. (2) Keep the code sheet in a secure location so that people other than the researchers do not have access to it. (3) Keep participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses in a secure location, separate from the code sheet, to protect the identity of individuals participating in study. (4)Researchers should be trained to explain these procedures for maintaining confidentiality to all respondents before they start participation. 20.In deciding whether or not to hire a specific marketing research firm, why it is important to learn about the other new clients and projects that the firm has taken on recently? It is important to know if we are their prior client compared to other clien ts, so we could have the priority on technical team, key personals and other important resources to accomplish the project. Besides that, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important because if a client is a big account for the firm, will the firm be likely to ask difficult or complex questions and not be a Ã¢â¬Å"yes-man? And if the client is small, will they still be valuable to the firm or will they be ignored? Also, if a firm has had a high client turnover rate, both recent gains and losses, this could be a red flag. If theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve lost a lot of clients it could signal poor work or management, but on the flip side if theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve gained a lot, it may mean the firm will pay less attention to each individual client. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to look at past projects as well to determine if a firm can actually do the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s work.