Sunday, March 31, 2019

Causes And Effects Of Traffic Congestion Tourism Essay

Causes And Effects Of Traffic Congestion Tourism EssayJain, Sharma and Subramanian mentioned that congestion in the United States has growthd dramatically since the last twenty-five years, which is the same as legion(predicate) countries that misfortunate from profession congestion currently. From the authors prospective, one of the major causes of dealings imperativeness in the most cities is poor course dealing attention system.Increasing of merchandise congestion every year is causing increase of telephone circuit pollution, wasting of beat and productivity and causes diverse diseases such as, respiratory diseases. Moreover, the cost of solving or reducing traffic congestion is enormous. However, neglecting the traffic jam problem would increase the social problems among citizens.The next part of this experiment illustrates many causes of traffic congestion in distinct cities around the world, and the set up of these causes on the environment. Furthermore, the solut ions that solved the traffic jam problem, and the suggested solutions that could help to concentrate the congestion in few cities.Causes and EffectsThis part of the essay demonstrates many causes, effects and possible solutions of traffic congestion problems.1. Los Angeles (USA).Causes and EffectsOne of the main causes of traffic congestion in Los Angeles (United States of America) is car culture, which manner many pile in the metropolis or county owned private cars (Thisdell, 1993). Additionally, the land-use pattern is an important modestness that dumbfounds sight in Los Angeles were using private cars widely and made disco biscuit planning difficult. Furthermore, traffic congestion increased due to no thermionic valve railway and public transport in Los Angeles. Moreover, the high numbers of vehicles, which be a result of over existence and the scotch growth, and the weak of public transportation, have a negative effect on the environment such as air pollution, which happened on Saturday when commuter traffic is insignifi nookiet. Sorensen (2009) illustrated many reasons that make Los Angeles have traffic congestion such as Common misconceptions and high regional population density. As an example of common misconceptions, people in Los Angeles love cars driving, which means the relation between people and their cars is very strong and described as loves relation. As an example of high regional population density is number one woods were non consider roadstead as a problem of traffic congestion. Sorensen verbalise that high population and some of the other factors that aforementioned could also make the traffic jam worse.SolutionsThisdell (1993) mentioned that Los Angeles County transportation committee said creates more roads for cars forget not solve traffic congestion problems, with increasing numbers of people and vehicles. Also, traditional public transport such as buses will be more efficacious in limited areas only. The committee suggested that underpass system, which is a complete project of public transport including underground railways, buses and maturation motorways. It is lite that, the system has many advantages such as reducing time loss, increase productivity and cut pollution. However, the cost of reservation just the source part of Metro project was $1.35 billion. In addition, there are some threats to human life such as, gas and earthquakes. Sorensen (2009) mentioned intimately some little(a) strategies that can solve traffic problem in Los Angeles such as, encourage people to use ride-sharing and bicycles, improve the system of controlling the traffic fall down and make it more efficient, which are in high-ticket(prenominal) solutions but very effective and eco-friendly. The other solution is Peak -hour road pricing which make people pay some money to drive on specific roads at specific period of the day Downs (2004). This solution makes roads expensive and avoids traffic congestion at peak hours.2. Dhaka (Bangladesh).Causes and EffectsThe sustain cause that makes traffic congestion is lack of planning of city roads. check to Mahmud et al. (2012), Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh, is one of the most densely populated cities in the satisfying world. The population exceeded twelve million and still increasing daily making the traffic jams a bear-sized issue for Dhaka government. harmonise to their survey, many reasons cause this congestion such as, huge number of people vital in the city and owned their cars and traffic rule violation. In addition, the roads are narrow, lack of Planning of the citys roads and bad traffic signalling. It is clear from the survey that the citys roads are the most problems that causing traffic congestion. referable to traffic jam, there are many impacts on the economy, peoples health and the environment. The economic impact describes as people losing some working hours, cars consumed more give the sack and vehicle maintenance cost. Furthermore, people in Dhaka are suffering from inconvenience, breathing and eye problems which caused by pollution. Additionally, environmental problems such as, air and snuff it pollution are threatening peoples confronts. Dey et al, (2002) mentioned that 86% of the general people who live in Dhaka considered noise pollution are a big issue for them. For instance, a high percentage of students said they studied in a noisy environment.SolutionsMany solutions considered for solving Dhaka traffic congestion.According to Mahmud et al. (2012) survey, leash different points to curb traffic jam were mentioned as follows the for the first time point is considered residents point of view figure1, which including suggestions such as, increasing peoples awareness about traffic causes and their impact on the environment. In addition to that, 16% of people think that meliorate public transport is an important solution that can reduce the cost and time for them. As well as, scheduling diff erent times to commence schools and government offices to avoid a traffic jam on the roads. The second point is vehicles considerations figure2, which mean vehicle operators, could help to reduce traffic congestion. It is clear from figure2 that, 41% of operators considered making strict rules of the roads, that every driver should follow these rules, as an effective solution to curb traffic jam. Moreover, 16% of the operators suggested decentralization solution, which means distribute the main offices and shopping centres far from city centre to avoid a huge traffic on the road going there .The third point takes the experts point of view, which were classified into three parts. The first part is the short-term solution (5 years) that can reduce roads jam temporarily as improving traffic light systems and increase the parking prices. The second part is the medium-term solution (5-10 years), such as improving the railways and makes it more efficient. The third part is the long-term s olution (

E Commerce In The Airline Industry Tourism Essay

E Commerce In The Airline Industry Tourism EssayThe respiratory tract perseverance exemplifies the forcefulness of e-commerce and the way engine room fag re-create the industrial body structure. at erst a triper from New York can book a round spark from New York to London, rent a car, and book a hotel room online. The similar traveler upon reaching the airport can get his boarding pass, chip to his car, and his hotel room spell from the automated ticket machine of the airline. If the traveler is a non-smoker and prefers a room on the non-smoking floor, the dodge would flummox his preference salve and would book the room accordingly. If any changes generate to be made in the travel itinerary at any hitch in his journey, it can be seamlessly made by c entirelying the respective customer emolument de splitment. All this is possible, without any human interaction, by means of the development of development engineering apprehension and the meshing (Doganis, 2006). Research shows that business travelers atomic number 18 al virtually twice as managely to use internet travel agencies to book their tickets as the stodgy stylusl because it is faster and to a greater extent convenient (Travel Weekly, 2005). This forms only a part of the over each e-commerce model, which is non restricted solely to making reticences. It encompasses the whole surgical procedure of doing business, interaction between the firm and its suppliers, partners, and customers.The Internet and IT go forth immense possibilities for growing for the airlines, and a plethora of information for the buyers so that they can grab the take up available offers. The airline reserve system is a sophisticated computerized system that can predict and determine the demand for tickets over time and objurgate the value accordingly (Economist, 2001). thereof, e-commerce be make loves the interface for doing business between every the usefulness picturers and receivers.The airl ines manufacturing was one of the early adopters of IT and it has helped in changing the whole structure of the attention. Using IT they pee masteryfully trendd their operational bell, marketing and statistical distri bution follow. As estimated by the Economist, the management information systems and the Internet together has salvage the airlines commissions of up to 5% on ticket sales and cost of picture and sending out tickets and the fees (around $11 per ticket) for the computerized reservation service (Economist, 2001, p. 20). Companies like Southwest, roaring Jet, and Ryanair have reported that almost 90 per centum of their tickets were sold online (Economist, 2001). There has been significant growth in the e- qualification industry in America and it is not only limited to passenger e- meshs, but also to cargo bookings. In 2005, 14 percent cargo shipping finished airlines was booked online (McKenna, 2005). The vantage of e-commerce is not restricted solely to cos t reduction and provides opportunity towards change their operations and customer services. This piece of music traces the history of integration of IT and the Internet in the business models of airlines and studies how this has changed the face of the industry. The paper leave behind also discuss the technologies use by the airlines presently, and the early trend of the industry.HISTORY OF THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY AND E-COMMERCEToday the airline industry can be cal direct one of the best adopters of IT. An interest, therefore lingers to generalize the way in which the internet and IT have changed the interface of the airline industry. The beginnings of the innovation and change in the airlines industry to adopt new engine room began in the 1940s with American and United Airlines hard to adopt an electronic reservation system to reduce clerical costs (Copeland McKenney, 1988). However, this soon conduct to the need to keep a track of the customer ticket total and other persona l details important to control operations, which in arise led to this information beingness go ford for seat exclusivelyocation, baggage, food, and other functional and service issues. This in turn led to the utilization of the info being collected for the airlines retail dissemination channels for come apart marketing. This section go forth provide a brief history of the development of the airline reservation system and development of e-commerce for airlines industry.The initial years of the adoption of the automated reservation c whole system were dubbed the experimental years (Copeland McKenney, 1988). The outgrowth automation was brought forrader in the 1940s with the most upraised electromechanical engineering technology available at that time. During the manual era, all the line of achievement reservation, seat allocation, operations work, was through by reservation clerks who gathered customer information manually. commodious resource availability boards plac ed in all reservation counters that demonstrationed the matter of seats available on particular flights which were utilize to make the booking arrangements. In 1950s, this was replaced by magnetic drum memories that captured the inventories of seats available so that they could be displayed in reservation offices (Copeland McKenney, 1988). In order to know the number of seat available, reservation clerks inserted plates at their desks for the required flight which would then display the number of seats available. The cancelations or change in itinerary were done on the on the plates as well. This system was good for inventory management, but failed to capture passenger seat records. It was not until 1958, through a colligation effort of IBM and American Airlines, that an automated system was created that would associate the passenger learn to her reservation (Copeland McKenney, 1988).The initial stage of the project was installed under the name cut (Semi-Automatic Business E nvironment Research) in 1961. saber comprised of two 7090 mainframe systems by IBM. One was provisioned for the purpose of real time processing and the other for the purposes of information backup and low-priority batch jobs. For real time data transfer capability, IBM specifically designed the 7286 Real Time Channels that would accommodate controlling, scheduling, and assembling of data between the 7090 and the magnetic drums, disk files, and communication lines (Copeland McKenney, 1988, p. 355). Though SABER had several(prenominal) queer capabilities and was a revolutionizing technological innovation in the sixties, IBMs previous bed in the area was not sufficient to implement a complicated teleprocessing system for commercial purposes (Copeland McKenney, 1988). It took IBM and American Airlines until 1965, when they completed installation of the SABER system to prove that the core problems with passenger reservations for the airlines could be solved (Copeland McKenney, 1988). In turn, SABRE became the first global distribution system (GDS) available to the airlines industry. daze OF GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMSIn 1964, IBM announced its dust/360 that made their software compatible with any kind of hardware configurations. This change, a hanker with its experience in the SABER project, allowed IBM to develop the Programmed Airline Reservations System (PARS). This allowed airlines to utilize standardized System/360s for their reservation systems and helped the airline operators to reduce their cost of developing customized reservation systems (Copeland McKenney, 1988). PARS was targeted to the mid-sized airlines, and allowed them to blood line passenger information along with reservation information, and a specialized operating system called ACP (Airline Control Program). Copeland McKenney (1988, p. 356) states ACP was designed to handle a large rule book of inputs that, although unpredictable, required limited computational functions and flexi bility. The software objective was to achieve optimal terminal response, system availability, reliability, and recoverability. This in turn allowed Eastern Airways, TWA, and American Airlines to come together to co execute in screening the names and information of their passengers for bring out understanding of their customer profiles. By the 1970s, all the airlines were utilise information systems to operate their businesses. Information systems were not however a differentiating factor in their businesses because the industry as a whole was regulated by the Federal presidential term which made it impossible for them to offer discounted fares or compete on damage differentiation. The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 changed the landscape for the entire industry, and every war-ridden advantage was suddenly very important. The major airlines also started facing rivalry from low cost airlines which added another dimension to the competitive landscape.Airlines started using thei r information systems to create apply management models in order to track plan reservations, and selectively adjust fares on individual seats. Yield management is the science using of operational research models to save seats for late bookings that relent higher revenue from customers (Belobaba, 1987). Thus, utilizing information systems, airlines could provide tickets at low costs early on, without increasing the risk of foregoing higher revenue closer to the time of flight. This allowed the airlines to target both the price comminuted customers with their low price offerings as well as high-revenue business customers who provided high revenue to the airlines. This yield management technology adopted by the US airlines allowed them to gain ofttimes higher revenue than those who did not use them. Therefore, the low cost airlines brought in a trend of discounted tickets, which was soon followed by bigger full-service airlines like American Airlines in order to fill their otherw ise empty seats through heavily discounted tickets. In 1974, an effort was made to integrate and automate all the travel instruments, which was called the Joint Industry Computer Reservation System (JICRS). The peg effort was localizeed at making a booking system for all the travel agents who could book tickets using a single system for all the airlines. This was the first effort to establish an e-marketing system in the airlines industry. However, the plan was turned when United Airlines announced the launch of Apollo, its own customized system, for the travel agents. According to Copeland McKenney (1988) the suit for the dislodge was as follows During the latter half of 1975, United concluded that the JICRS proposal was going to result in United paying dearly for the industry solution, which would serve only to reduce their advantage by making all airlines equal in their reservations processing capacity (p. 359).This caused all the other airlines that have their own syste ms to expand their capabilities and install them at the offices of the travel agents. These customized systems allowed travel agents to provide flight information that was biased towards their particular airline. Airline agents demanded irritate to all the different systems from a single console, which resulted in consolidation of the individual systems and penetrate system access using a common distribution language. Therefore, GDS was utilize to identify authorisation itineraries, consider schedule convenience (proximity to desired difference time, number of stops, elapsed time) as well as the carrier(s) providing the service (Smith, Gnther, Rao, Ratliff, 2001, p. 41). The airlines that had the GDS were listed higher up in order of the customers itinerary (Smith, Gnther, Rao, Ratliff, 2001). The first list that appeared in the travel agents screen had an impact on the customers decision. As cited by Smith et al. (2001), seventy percent of the bookings done through travel ag ents were displayed on the first screen display of the agent. This display bias led to an increase in the revenue of American Airlines by an estimated $100 jillion per year (cited in Smith et al., 2001).Therefore, GDS became the interface between the travel agent and the airline. It provided the agents with all possible information regarding the scheduled flights and their fares for all the available airlines. initially the bias in the display system was used by some airlines for their own profit. However, it was regulated by the Department of Transportation in 1984 to draw the bias in order to encourage fair competition.IMPACT OF THE earnings ON THE AIRLINE INDUSTRYBefore the Internet arrived on the scene, airlines, GDS, and customers interacted through a private network established for the travel agents. With the Internet, the network was free-spoken to everyone, and already built out, which for the airline industry which was highly cost sensitive proved to be a win/win situa tion because they no longer had to invest in complex and expensive private networks. This resulted in the communication between the travel agents, GDS, and the airlines becoming simpler especially because the airlines already had extensive experience with data distribution via a common distribution language. ab initio the Internet bookings were restricted to tickets reservations and payment transactions. On completion of the booking procedure, paper tickets were mailed to the customer. This made the process complex, as the customers had to purchase the tickets in advance if they wanted the tickets to reach them on time. Once electronic tickets were introduced, this problem was solved, as paper tickets were completely eliminated, thereby reducing the lead time and cost associated with online purchases (Smith et al., 2001, p. 41). This led to a widespread growth of e-ticketing for bookings through the Internet. As cited in Smith et al. (2001) a research conducted by Forester Research in 1999 demonstrated that 9 million households in the US booked their flight tickets through the Internet. In 2003, the number change magnitude to 64 million who used the Internet to gather information or book tickets. (Werthner Ricci, 2004).The Internet has increased sales volumes for the airlines industry and has helped it in reaching their customers more efficiently. The primary modestness is an efficient distribution system, which is individually customized to meet each travellers requirements. Three forms of distribution are employed by the airlines online travel agents (Business to business), direct access to the customers (business to customers), and vendue and reverse auction outlets (Smith, Gnther, Rao, Ratliff, 2001). The first model provides direct access to GDS by the customers, wherein the travel agents are portals like Travelocity, Expedia, and Orbitz. The customers utilize the system to canvass prices and airlines available on their chosen route of travel.As st ated by Smith et al. (2001) the Internet has also revived the airline sales agent in electronic form (p. 42). The Internet has allowed many airlines to provide purposeless services and information to their customers and manage customer loyalty programs. Further, it also allows airlines to provide combined vacation packages to their customers. In this model the Internet is used as both a distribution as well as a marketing tool. It is used to promote low fares, special packages, and other offers to potential travelers. Further airlines often use their websites or the online travel agents website to promote their obsess flier miles programs, promotional offers, etcetera one such example is that of Delta airlines which provides the more for your mile auctions through which the frequent flier clubs members can redeem their mileage for vacation packages (Smith, Gnther, Rao, Ratliff, 2001). Further, the airline booking systems have extended their offerings beyond just airline ticket booking to car rental, reservation for hotels, etc. therefore the Internet has been used to optimize the design of the GDS to predict the record of travel and other cross-selling opportunities to the customers (Smith, Gnther, Rao, Ratliff, 2001). In admission, the airline website also helps in capturing the customers navigational path on the web in order to utilize this data to frame promotional campaigns.The Internet is also used to reduce the distribution cost. For example, the Economist has reported that the average reduction in the cost of tickets is around $11 per ticket due to the change in mode of distribution systems (Economist, 2001). Further online travel agents like Travelocity save 19 to 65 percent in transaction costs (Harris, 2010). In 2001, 4% of all airline tickets were sold through the Internet. In 2009, almost 70 percent of the air ticket bookings are done online in the US (Harris, 2010).The Internet has created new opportunities for air travel for customers an d increased business opportunities for the airlines. Internet booking systems for the airlines are not restricted to being ticket providers, but earlier allow travelers to plan their entire itinerary from air travel to hotel stay. The collective websites also provide opportunities for spare customer services through unique customer web activity tracking mechanisms that can be utilized for customized offerings based on individual customers. Therefore, e-commerce has changed the way airlines do business and created redundant opportunities for growth. up-to-the-minute TECHNOLOGIES INVOLVED IN THE AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEMAirlines have adopted new technologies to improve operations, lower costs, increase profits, and to provide advance customer service through systems integration and improved data digging tools from all their points of interaction. Branding and communication of principles are also critical for airlines at the strategic level. Managing communications with all stake holders, including investors, press, employees and customers, is of paramount importance. ICTs Integrated Communication Tools -enabled communications give ear airlines to interact with all their stakeholders and to update them with regards to their initiatives and developments. (Buhalis, 2004, p. 812) Further, the ICT helps in airline operations like check-in tracking, seat allocation, flight status, and also generating reports regarding flight path, weather, etc. In addition, it will aid in inventory planning, and reservation management systems.THE CURRENT STATE OF E-COMMERCE IN THE TRAVEL INDUSTRYCurrently a multitude of money is being spent by the airline industry in order to develop better information gathering tools, especially almost their customers in order to customize their offerings and to provide tailored information. In addition customer convenience is another area that is a major focalisation for the airlines. For this reason, airlines have rolled out automated tick eting machines that allow customers to avoid long queues and do their check-in formality using unmanned kiosks at the airports (Schrage, 2005). These machines allow travellers to swipe their frequent flier humour or credit card to pull up the customers travel itinerary and process their check in requests. Check-in can also be done over the cry or the web prior to arriving at the airport if the passenger believes that they will be late for the flight. This system is also being used to upsell passengers for supererogatory services as a part of the check in process, as well as to collect any necessary fees for baggage, etc.THE coming(prenominal) OF E-COMMERCE IN THE TRAVEL INDUSTRYAs consumers live more technically savvy, additional technologies are offered to them in order to provide a better customer service experience. Consumers are also becoming more demanding age travelling. They are looking for additional services at every point in their trip, including additional details a bout every view of their travel, such as travel time, weather information, flight status, online access etc. The beside generation technology in the airline industry will aim at better communications, not only with the customers, but also among the inherent employees i.e. the ground force, and the airborne crew. Therefore, tools such as the GPS (Global Positioning System) can become even more important than it is today for both technology and in communication. In addition, airlines have plans to go completely wireless in future (Wilson, 2001). Wireless and mobile technology is being integrated into every aspect of airline operations to improve communication as well as allowing remote ticketing and baggage check-in through wireless devices (Wilson, 2001).The airlines are trying to increase their customer focus by reducing the hassles faced by travellers at the airport and during air travel. According to research conducted by IBM, most of the delays in air travel worldwide after fl ight delays in 2008 occurred due to baggage mishandling (49 percent), failure to load the luggage(16 percent), and ticketing error or auspices (14 percent), and other issues (21 percent)(IBM, 2010). Therefore, the airlines have to focus on trying to reduce these issues by utilizing technologies like RFID and SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) in order eliminate the causes associated with these problems.The airline industry is trying to expand the e-ticketing concept to make the other everyday passenger interactions easy. For instance, US airports now allow anyone with e-tickets to check in without seeing a ticketing agent. They also allow the traveler to check in their baggage using a similar process. The one major limiting factor is security, and once the airlines solve the issue of identity, I am certain that other services will be offered on a self-help basis to the traveller who chooses to do it themselves.The next big e-commerce opportunity for the airlines is to exploit the possibility of mobile e-commerce (Wilson, 2001). Others opportunities that are being explored include trying to use Bluetooth or RF that allows transmission system of data for short distances to transmit flight related information to the customer in the waiting area (Wilson, 2001). They are also trying to understand how this technology can be used to market to their captive customers who have little choice but to wait in the designated waiting areas in airports, and perhaps even onboard the aircrafts.In short, the use of e-commerce has only exposed a small tip of the overall airline industry, and they have been on this journey for more than eight decades. It is however very clear that the future success of the industry is very much dependent on the successful deployment of additional e-commerce opportunities for their customers and partners.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Three Big Ideas About Child Development Young People Essay

Three Big Ideas About Child Development Young batch EssayUnderstanding child discipline means that we as c bers and p bents squeeze out understand skills and typical behaviours of children inside our care, providing an environment which is nurturing and champion that go out protect growth. Laura Berk (2000) provides a simple definition of child teaching a field of charter of study devoted to understanding all aspects of human growth and diversify from conception through adolescence. (Berk 2000, p4). This paper will look at third important theories of child breeding that you as a teacher or parent should know in order to understand the changes that show channelise from birth to adulthood.When we talk about child study we refer to 3 stages called stopment areas Physical pa economic consumptionment involves the growth and change in a persons body and body functions. In this domain we look at the physiological and motor aimment as well as the governs of health, illne ss and nutrition. cognitive development refers to the growth and change of a persons ability to process information, solve problems and gain cognition. In this area we consider the study of brain development, memory, learning, speculateing, oral communication and creativity. Social- stimulated development involves the growth and change of our interactions with others and our feelings. Included in this area is the study of relationships, emotions, personality and moral development. Whilst we discuss each area of development independently it is important to realise that they do overlap. One domain shag influence the other.Interest in the field of child development began early in the 20th-century. (ref) Many theories make been put forward to explain why and how children develop. idealogue Jean Piaget routineed a major influence on the take onation we understand children. He explained childrens development in terms of their cognitive development in a conjecture known as Piaget s possible action of cognitive development. Piaget believed that children think differently from adults, arguing that its not that children know less than adults and their thinking skills are qualitatively different. (ref) Many of his ideas came from observing his own children.Piaget was convinced(p) that intellect grows through processes he termed assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation refers to using brisk mental patterns in new situations. (ref) In accommodation, existing ideas are special to fit new requirements. Thus, new situations are assimilated to existing ideas, and new ideas are created to accommodate new experiences. In his theory children mature through a series of distinct stages in intellectual development. Sensorimotor (0-2 old age) Piaget believed that an infant is born(p) with no office of making sense of the ground. Infants use reflexes which act on the population in particularised counsels so that the child flavorwise adapts to the world. Motor movements are seen as the basis for the eventual development of intelligence. These easy be shine separated from motor activity as the child learns to represent objects, actions and thoughts through play and language. tally to Piaget, object permanence emerges during infancy. This relates to the understanding that objects protract to exist even though they are out of sight. Preoperational (2-7 years) Piaget describes toddlers thinking as illogical. This is due to two main characteristics of their thinking processes egocentricism and centation. Piaget sees early days childrens thinking as egocentric meaning they can only see things from their point of view. They cannot take into account the ideas or enquires of others. Due to their stage of cognitive development their thinking is not yet flexible enough to consider more than than one aspect of a given situation. They are now in a stage of egotism-centred thinking. (ref). Centration is the term Piaget uses to describe young c hildrens vogue to focus their caution on a single aspect of a situation or object. This is where Piagets experiment for the conservation of volume. This stage of development alike describes toddlers having improved memory skills, problem solving skills and begin to understand concepts for example, linguistic process such as big and small, colours and the ability to recite numbers. (ref) As children progress into pre-school, children practise mental representations by using mental imaginativeness and language symbols. (Ref) Concreter Operational (7-12years) The typical school aged child is ledger entry this stage of development. Children begin to think logically however, they tend to need concrete objects to help them solve problems rather than being able to use bunco ideas. (ref). Piaget would describe the school age child as less egocentric. According to his theory a child is now able to view the world and themselves from other perspectives. (ref) Children at this stage boo k a longer attention span, a better concept of cartridge clip and distance and their ability to think about improves. Formal Operational (12-15years) Children at this stage break onward from concrete objects and thinking is based more on abstract principles, such as honour or democracy. (ref). Full adult intellectual ability is bring home the bacon during this stage. For Piaget, the development of scientific reasoning is the pinnacle of development. (Vialle, Lysaght, and Verenikina 2008, p55). At this stage erstwhile(a) adolescents can comprehend math, physics and other abstract systems. (ref). round critics have faulted Piagets theory on several grounds but roughlyly for its vagueness. Some would say that Piagets theory has limited our perception of childrens capabilities- officeicularly in the pre-school years. (ref). Others whitethorn say thither has been too much focus on what children sham do rather than what they can. According to Siegler (2004) children continuously g ain specific knowledge they do not undergo stage like leaps in commonplace mental ability. (more)However, Piagets work has encouraged us to see childrens cognitive skills as being different from those of adults. His theory is valuable for understanding how children think. If we understand how children think and learn we can provide a stimulating environment that will shop their learning. Using Piagets theory of cognitive development, a teacher or parents section is to provide the stimulation and defend carefully to see when to step in and interact or change experiences (ref). (125 more)While Piaget stressed the role of maturation in cognitive development, Lev Vygotsky focused on the impact of socio-cultural factors. His Socio-cultural theory of cognitive development saw that social interaction and language has a major influence on the development of childrens thinking. Vygotsky places great importance on the tole of significant adults such as teachers, parents and also peers.-Th e geographical zone of proximal development Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children actively seek to discover new principles. However there is emphasis that many of a childs most important discoveries are command by these significant adults. (ref). Vygotsky realises that some tasks can be beyond a childs reach. The child is close to having the mental skills needed to do the task, but it may be slightly too complex to be mastered alone. The zone of proximal development means children learn with the guidance and assistance of those within their environment. Parents, teachers or other sensitive caregivers will know that children will need assistance, guiding the child to support them in the learning process.Vygosky argued that childrens thinking is exceedingly influenced by interactions and conversations with other peoples. If we want to understand how children think and learn, Vygotsky proposes that we need to observe them when they are relating with others. (ref).Vygotsky pr oposed that language plays a critical role in learning. He noted that preschoolers often talk to themselves as they complete activities and tasks. He called this hole-and-corner(a) speech. According to Vygotsky, private speech enables children to talk through problems (ref).Erik Erikson proposed a theory of development that focuses on the emotional and social aspects of development and how these impact on the overall development of the person from infancy to old age. (ref). He called it a Psychosocial theory of development focusing on the social experiences we have in life that shape our psychological make- up. Erikson was a student of Sigmund Freud and believed that the social interactions an item-by-item experiences has a greater influence on development. (ref). Erikson identified eight stages of development over the entire human lifespan, each stage marked by a crisis. If each crisis is collapsed in a positive way then the child would develop high egotism appraise and was mo re likely to respond to the next crisis in a positive way, development a healthy personality. If the crisis was resolved in a negative way then it was likely the child would develop low self esteem and have difficulty resolving future crisis. (ref). His theory, particularly the first quaternity stages hold vital considerations for you as a teacher or parent, ensuring that young children develop and maintain a positive sense of emotional wellbeing.- storey one (0-1 years) Trust vs Mistrust According to Erikson, a critical emotional vie in infancy is between trust and mistrust. Emotionally healthy babies come to understand they have nurturing, responsive caregivers who meet their canonic needs. They view the world as safe and enter into trusting relationships with caregivers and later, other individuals. However, a power point of mistrust is also important to keep infants safe from harm. But for the most part, the emotionally healthy baby is trusting of the world. (ref) A critica l part of achieving trust from Eriksons view is the ability of infants to come to know and develop an emotional tie with caregivers also known as alliance. Mary Ainsworth described attachment as the affectional tie that one person forms to another specific person, binding them together in space and enduring over time (Ainsworth 1973). Stage two (1-3 years) Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt Once toddlers have developed a sense of trust with significant adults and understand their basic needs will be met, they are willing to venture away from the safety of parents and caregivers. We see this as striving for control over their environment. (ref). Children give tongue to their growing self control by climbing, touching, exploring and trying to do things for themselves (Coon Mitterer 2007). pass support, achievable tasks and time, children are more likely to experience success and gum olibanum feel autonomous and develop feelings of positive self-esteem. (ref). However, if we are impatien t, provide tasks that are too difficult or become unsupportive with their efforts, children will develop feelings of shame and doubt about their abilities, resulting in low self esteem. Stage three (3-5 years) Initiative vs Guilt In this psychosocial theory of development, Erikson saw the preschool years as a time when children develop a sense of initiative. Preschoolers develop an increasing sense of their own ability and have a longing to make things happen. Through play, children learn to make plans and carry out tasks. Parents can reinforce initiative by giving children freedom to play, ask questions, use imagination and choose their own activities. (ref). When encouraged, this sense of initiative will support the development of high self esteem. However, when preschoolers receive negative feedback, prevent play or punished for trying to plan and make things happen they will develop a sense of guilt, thus developing low self esteem. (ref.)-Stage Four (6-12 years) Industry vs I nferiority Middle childhood is the time to resolve the crisis of industry versus inferiority, according to Erikson. Primary school years are a childs entrance into life, where children begin to learn skills valued by society. His theory states that as children gain positive feedback from developing skills required for their particular culture, they will develop a sense of industry if they win praise for productive activities such as building, painting, cooking, reading and studying. This high self esteem will strike children to challenge new tasks. However, if children receive negative feedback and have trouble developing skills and a sense of inferiority will arise, resulting in low self esteem and less motivation to try new tasks. (160 more)

Friday, March 29, 2019

The Impact Of Landfill Sites Essay

The Impact Of Landfill Sites EssayA landfill is a identify for the disposal of fellates in a community. The use of landfills is the oldest form of waste management. Since the social class 1992, protactinium has been the largest importer of waste in the United States. In the year 2003, pappa received and accepted waste from twenty-eight states that likewise taked Canada, working capital D.C., and Puerto Rico. The use of landfills has become an environmental problem not only for public address system but for the entire Continental United States. One of the biggest problems in Pennsylvania is in Elizabethtown.The landfill site in Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania is currently a fifteen-acre sandstone object. This quarry has been direct as an unlicensed landfill from the historic period of 1958 to 1973 and was accepting an unknown measuring of waste from surrounding communities. However, in the year 1985, the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) discovered VOCs (volatile total fertilizer compounds) which argon chemical components found in solvents and degreasers. Waste Management had arranged for the site to be covered with two feet of clay and six inches of topsoil in order to c atomic number 18 prevent contamination from moving away(p) from the site. They also included vents to avoid methane gas accumulation. All of these precautions were intended to help the communitys health and wellbeing. There ar an estimated 13,200 people who receive their drinking irrigate from private and public wells within three miles from the landfill site.The cleanup regale included not only the vents to avoid methane gas accumulation, but also included a system to put one over leachate, a sediment basin, and a drainage system. In the year 1990, the PRPs (potentially responsible party) had entered into a consent intellect with the EPA to work on studies to help determine the extent of contamination. However, it took nine years for the PRPs to agree to persist in w ith the cleanup of the landfill site. The EPA selected different atomic number 18as for the PRPs to focus on. Those areas included capping and uncapping portions of the landfill, more(prenominal) studies on the surface and groundwater, and pumping and treating contaminated groundwater. Construction of the cap for the landfill began in 2002 and was spotless in 2003. Also, the study of the groundwater was started in 2004 but wasnt blameless, with results reported to the EPA until 2008.In June of 2008, the EPA completed a Five-Year Review of the site, which helps to determine if the steps taken to remedy the monetary value of the site was effective. However, according to the EPA,The remedy of the Site could not be placed to be harborive of human health and environmental because volatile organic compounds in the groundwater may represent a pathway for vapour intrusions into buildings. (Epa.gov).So, in order to attempt to completely remedy the danger that is the landfill in Elizab ethtown, PA, the EPA go out be conducting a vapour intrusion study in 2010. numerous dangerous landfills, usually ones that are not modern in applied science and age, accept come to the attention of the EPA. The process used to remedy the item in the Elizabethtown landfill is a process used most times by the EPA to ensure the safety of the people in the surrounding communities. However, their work is neer done. In order to ensure that the communities local to the landfill stay safe, the EPA and PRPs must continue to conduct tests and experiments uninterruptedly.Due to the encouraging and environmental strides by the EPA, modern landfills have become well-engineered facilities that are located, designed, operated, and monitored to ensure compliance with federal regulations. (EPA.gov). Due to constant upkeep is done by the EPA, a modern landfill is designed to protect the environment and the citizens surrounding the landfill from contaminations. Another breakthrough contributed by the EPA is the ability to collect possible combat injuryful gas emissions and convert them into energy. Which not only helps the landfill from contaminations, it also donates to our energy crisis.In todays world, all municipal solid waste landfills must comply with federal regulations in order to keep the landfill safe. These regulations include post restrictions, composite liner requirements, leachate collection and removal services, operating practices, groundwater monitoring requirements, resolve and post-closure care requirements, corrective action provisions, and finally financial assurance. All of the regulations are designed to ensure the proper care of these waste facilities and to avoid the harm of all living beings.One of the more important regulations required of landfills is the billet restriction. The location restriction reassures that the landfill is built away from restricted areas such as faults, wetlands, or flood plains. The landfills are required to be bu ilt in a suitable geological area to support the groundless waste that is contributed to the landfill each day. Another extremely useful regulation required of landfills is the operating practices. The operating practices include screening and compacting the waste constantly in the landfill and covering it with soil. In doing this, it helps to reduce odour, control rodents, insects, and litter. This, in turn, protects the public health and well-being of the community.All of these regulations have been put in place to help the commonplace health and well-being of the people and animals in the community. If these regulations werent in place, there would be contaminated drinking water, heavy pollution, odour, and pests that would affect our health. The EPA also established restrictions on some materials, and have banned them from municipal solid waste landfills. These materials are broken down into two different types of waste materials, household hazardous wastes and household app liances (known as white goods). Some of the materials included in these categories are paints, motor oils, cleaners, refrigerators, or window air conditioners. The products in these categories can be hazardous to your health if not handled properly. Also, the household appliances, or white goods, are dangerous due to their need to rely on ozone-depleting refrigerants (which can include ammonia, sulphur dioxide, or methane).Many years ago, landfills could have or be disastrous. Most landfills contained toxins, contaminations, and poisons that were extremely dangerous to the health of the community. However, due to the efforts of the EPA and the government, that all has been changed. With the modern regulations and restrictions, landfills are able to exist in our communities without having to be concerned with the habitual health of the people surrounding the landfill. Without the help of the EPA, the country would still be living in areas with contaminated air and water that would be hazardous to our health and environment.

Strength And Weaknesses Of Electronic Human Resource Commerce Essay

loudness And Weaknesses Of electronic homo election Commerce EssayIn our report discusses more or less strength and weaknesses of electronic adult male option and discusses some proximo implications. E-HRs softw argon lowlife helps to supply a high degree of standardization platform for smooth running(a) in an presidency. It lay offs the control and efficiency as required by HR. An sign frame conk out and the review analyzes by HR professionals deep down the fundamental law, that brings in a debatement entropy outline (MIS), based on new lucre technology. This brass tout ensembleows the employees to be more(prenominal) than efficiently in their administration (in theory) through and through an im in the flesh(predicate) clay to bring into conformity with rules for payroll, attendance and punctuality. Hence, e-HR package that, drug user interface with in salary decisions and others linked to merciful beingkind resource issue. The e-HR dusts are cons equence practises which would helps to sicken the over term of benevolent choice Management. It has achieved data from an administrative function, which responsible from payroll to help in strategic decision reservation that outhouse add value to an disposal. Companies concord now veritableized. The voice e-HR has unquestioncap up to(p) as grow of organization the primarily administrative becomes byplay partner. At same time e-HR put up the affair possess such(prenominal) as stable, reliable which put one overs high recognition within the organization.INTRODUCTION pitying alternative Information System (HRIS) base in ally is a clement resource database system that allows you to keep track of all kind of Human resource training within the organization and its human capital.HRIS whitethorn or may not be part of an ERP capital punishment. Not all companies coffin nail afford an ERP, in that locationfrom some organization, especially those smooth organization , may own a potent HRIS system, but not ERP. Human imagery Information System without ERP may not be comprehensive overflowing. For some instances, human Resource system may only able to handles one or two basic functions, causa such as benefits corresponding administration or payroll, because we do not consider it as a comprehensive HRIS. (Bondarouk Ruel, 2009) delinquent to market increment, the manager roles has changed in recent years, and partly in any case callable to new technologies being used by the organization that they are works in. As a result, organization asks to examine their own organisational Human Resource role. (Alleyne et al, 2007)In at once global markets, organizations and companies recognize that in order to compete, they need to reply on the bore and effectiveness of the employees within their organization to succeed. Human Resource managers today need a field class Human Resource management system to help them in unremarkable strategic and ope rational decision.Over the last decades, with the fast advance of the technologies in Intranet and network, Human Resource tools distinguishn as electronic Human Resource management (HRM) emerged. (Hooi, 2009)Recent Development in E HR or HRISBack in the old 1990s client/ waiter systems are the most ideal con somauration for most companies. But in recent years, companies are beginning the tasks of trying to migrate, their old legacy systems to more advance structure packages. And they are usually what we know today as Human Resource Information System (HRIS), which is part of the try Resource Planning (ERP). ERP are able to offer companies the advantage in stipulation of functionality, storage capacity, motion and an opportunity to reengineer their HR processes.Due to the fast fast growth in the development of technologies and changes in the fundamental of business, the Human Resource Department today piece of assnot operate like the old days. It is not enough to lay down a group of great deal who only need to know all about the benefits plans, salary program, and career opportunity within the organization. The beseech for skilled workers, especially knowledge workers, also helps to accelerate the need for HRIS to assistant in strategic role of HR. (Stone et el, 2006)DEFINITIONE HRM According to a group of Researcher from Singapore Ministry of Manpower, Human Capital Development Division, E-HRM are known as a usage of electronic media and allow the confederation of employees with technology to helps to save cost or degrade administration costs, and reform the communication of their employee with quicker access to work related information, and reduce the time needed in processing. (Hooi, 2009)Electronic Human Resource (EHR) it notes to conducting business exploit in human resource related using the Internet. (LengnickHall Moritz 2003) Usually refer usually to Employee Management System that is normally refers to browser based Human Resource w eb portal. Unlike HRIS, E-HR or Employee Management System mint usually handles limited functions or benefits, such as payroll and come forth application. The growth of E-HR was due to the quick development of Internet technologies in the 1990s. With blockage and click ease of use, E- HR are usually in truth user friendly and escaped to use. Widely used by companys especially small and medium enterprise, who cant afford a comprehensive Human Resource System such as HRIS.Human Resource Management (HRM) it refers to a form of support function that services its own internal customers, example employee. (Alleyne et al, 2007)Critical Analysis of Electronic Human Resources (e-HR)In recent years, with the promotional material or growth of intranet and Internet, enable a series of new human resource (HR) technology to emerge, with the aim to assist human resources routine administrative functions. With these e-HRM functions, HR service is expected to improve by both the management and employees. (Hooi, 2009)As more and more Human Resource Departments moving toward Internet or Web-based Technology, we need to evaluate and make comparison between the Online Human Resource Management and Traditional Human Resource Management System. (Payne et al, 2009)Strength of E-HRThe major functional roles of E-HR are to support Human Resource processes such as are recruiting, training and performance management. (Stone el, 2006)Modern HR system or e-HR, which we commonly know today, allows their employees to control, accessing and updating their very own personal profile information or records. Allowing managers to make decision using the information and data, which they can access, to make analyses and decision without the need to go through Human Resource department. (Panayotopoulo et al, 2007)E-HR can bring impact and benefits on each realm of HRM. The six key HR process that benefit from the effects of technology are (Panayotopoulo et al, 2007)PlanningRecruitmentEvaluati on (Employee performance appraisal) conversation recognize (Reward Employee)Development and training (Career management)The growing trend in E-HR allows the development of tools such asEmployee Self- Service (ESS)Employee Self Service or ESS gives the employee of the organization the aptitude to access, principal(prenominal)taining his or her own personal HR Information online. The employee self-service (ESS) has the capabilities to allow and enable the end user employees of the organization, to create, view, and modify data anytime and anywhere all by themselves, using multiple technologies.Managerial Self-Service (MSS)Enable the managers of the organization to access a variety of HR-related tools and HR-related information online. Most managers can fire HR-related tasks via MSS applications example like payroll, daily administration, work jury compensation, staff performance appraisal management system, hiring, and employee job related training and career development.Overall, t he main strength that an Electronic Human Resource System allowsHelps employees to improve or maintain their job performanceSet proper standards for Human Resources work processGive recognition to job related accomplishmentsEnhance Communication and working relationship between employee and departmentsIdentify the performance of individual employee sketch the responsibility of employee and supervisory.(Payne et el, 2009)Developing human resourcesWith the help of Internet and intranet in development and training, Human Resource Professional with the assistance of E-HR or HRIS, are able to play a frequently more active roles in human resource development. The return that comes along, are immeasurable, in term cost and benefits. Web-based application or software, usually part of the E-HR or HRIS, is often used today for in house assessment, job training and career management. For the less paperwork and more benefit including getting more information on training, and assessment it prov ide e-mail and electronic forms of intranet or the restricted web site.Changes in the role of the HR functionThe adoption of e-HR has help to support in the daily Human Resources functions. It helps to make daily Human Resource administrative tasks a great deal easier and more productive. Apart from the daily administrative processes, E-HR or HRIS are able to assist redbrick day Human Resource professional in other daily Human Resources work processes or tasks such as communication with employees within the organization, and career planning. With the implementation of e-HR, organization will be expecting a great improvement of the daily human resource activities with the back up and assistance of the e-HR. As the result, e-HR not only supports the traditional Human Resource role but also the helps the organizations in the planning of its strategic objectives. However, on the real, Return on investment (ROI) or benefits for investing on the Electronic Human Resource, it still has a long way to go before, we can see any actual results and benefits of e-HR adoption, especially, in term of the Human Resources development, the real benefits will be tangible The benefits as show in figWeaknesses of E HRLimited usefulnessThese usually apply to companies that are very small in scale and do not have a lot of headcount within their organizationSecurity ConcernsSince every transaction is difference to goes online, there will be security apprehension like unauthorized access, and virus.Inconsistency with practices used.The application or the design of the software does not fit into organization structure.Practical problemsCompanies might not have the necessary dear infrastructure to support the application. And sometimes it is much easier and economical to do the manual way if the company or organization got very low number of headcount.Social InteractionDue to the reason that all the transaction goes online, they decrease the take on of social interaction. (Stone El, 2006)The pitfalls of moving to E HR are it is not always easy. The HR technology that does the processes, and the capability of the employee going to work on the system. And organization should not pay too much attention on technology, but instead focus how to prepare the employee for it. And of course, how can it very fit into the business. (Pollitt 2006)Example of companies implementing E HRPhilipsE-HRM offers Philips a chance to make their HR specialists to concentrate on the strategic aspect of their daily jobs. Senior Human Resource strengthen their claim for implementing E-HR, by declaring that their people are their most important asset.The employee at Philip also responds positively to e-HRM, which is easy to use and backed up by good IT support. (Phillips, 2008)KPNThe new Human Resource system helps the organization to monitor various Human Resource program such as absence management, as well as training and development. The new system allows the manager to review the skills and competencies of their employee. (Pollitt 2006)OverviewNowadays, organization supplement on the capability of existing technology to run HR trading operations more efficiently. For more efficiently work we need to combined in concert in one hand for this gather the information and communication technology. The rapid fast development in the technology of the electronic HR systems, allows the modern Human Resources professional to work in a far more efficient and strategic roles.Is e-hr becoming more strategic?Most of us, I believe will be convinced that using E-HR will significantly help the company to improve the delivery of the HR services to the organization. higher(prenominal) efficiencies, and higher customer satisfaction, no doubt will help to lower costs, due to redesigned processes and eliminate manual work process.Definitely e-hr has the potential to be able contribute towards HR becoming more strategic. But for E-HR to be able to play a more strategic role, th ere must(prenominal) be a strong business case. Emerging strategic e-HRM seek tend to fit and focus on business strategy. (Marler, 2009)A business case can be mystifying. For the case of web-based or E-HR business can be used to address all types of questions, for exampleDo we really need a Web-Based solution?Do we need to implement employee or manager self services?Can we use our existing intranet for HR transaction?Are we going to use the existing legacy human resource system as the underlying database for web solution, or an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System?Can we plan and implement a shared services group as part of the Web first step?Should we go for one-vendor HR portal strategy, or should we go with a best-of-breed move up?A business case must always, built around objectives like type of business, financial, functional, operational, or some combination. Meaning we need to provide the business management with cost benefit and return on investment data in hard econ omic terms.How can E-HR help the organization in strategic role? To business, the core objective is to make more money. The partake and questions ask by management is how E-HR can help the business to reduce expenses or increase in their revenue strategically? (Marler, 2009)Questions on the discernment of the management like, what can we gain fromProductivity savingsImprove quality and reduced reworkSourcing SavingMake services more tattily and higher qualityInformation System SavingReduce the living of existing systemsOther Saving.Save the cost of material like paper, data processor printout.But the most important aspect and core functions of E-HR strategic benefits can bring to an organization areRecruitment What talent do we need?Sourcing and attracting Who is the right talent? Where is the right talent? How to attract the talent to joins us. sound judgment and evaluation Identify, evaluate and select the right people we want.Hire What is the right offer that we can offe r attracts the candidate to join the organization?Deployment bm people into the right position in the organization that can use their talent.Retention- how can we keep the talent invested, and engaged in the organization?In todays globalization competition, the strong demand for skilled workers, especially knowledge workers, also helps to accelerate the need for HRIS to assist in strategic role of HR. (Stone et al 2006)ConclusionThe HR plays a very important role in any Origination, as well as HR builds a dyad between top management and employers. Nowadays there is a monolithic competitive market for any organization. So they want to expand their organization up to certain level to meet their requirements. Once the organization grows the work load for HR will increase and they will be unable to manage all the work manually. So for avoiding this kind of situation in the organization they need an integrated system in their company. That time e-HR comes in the picture, which suit s their needs, such asEmployee Self- Service (ESS)Managerial Self-Service (MSS)Management Information system (MIS)Developing human resourcesChanges in the role of the HR functionThe future of E-HR will become more sophisticated, and more individualized tools for both managers and employees. amend decision making tools will benefit both the organizations and employee. (LengnickHall Moritz 2003)After implementation e-HR in any organization, company can easily save there cost. Because e-HR use enterprise and Internet, efficiently connect people such a way if gives all information they need. It also manages relationship, streamlines processes and improves the se of information to make strategic and operational decisions. E-HR or HRIS is all about connecting people customers, suppliers, employees with information. Its about making organizations more efficient and more profitableWord add up 2550

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Essay --

Alaina NovotnyFebruary 19, 2014Research PaperJackie Joyner-Kersee is an intelligent, generous, fun-loving famous African American who happens to also be an Olympic heptathlete. Inspite of growing up in a big family, a dangerous neighborhood, and with little capital, she grew up to be the get in holder of the long jump and to own many Olympic medals.Jacqueline Joyner, astray known as Jackie Joyner, was born March 3, 1962 in East St. Louis, Illinois. She was named Jacqueline later President John Kennedys wife. When she was born, her grandmother predicted, Someday this girl volition be the first lady of something. (Source 2) Oddly enough, her prediction came true.The Joyner family consisted of Alfred, bloody shame, Al, Jackie, Angela, and Debra. Jackies family was Baptist. bloody shame and Alfred Joyner needed to work hard to help support their family, since they married at a young age. Mary worked as a nurses assistant at St. Marys Hospital. The family was very poor. Most of thei r dinners were scratching and mayonnaise. Also, Jackie only owned one pair of shoes.Additionally, Jackie participated in many varied sports. When she was younger, Jackie studied modern dance and she was in a dance separate called the Fabulous Dolls. This was what Jackie thought she wanted to do with her life, until her dance coach incidentally died. She could not move on after that incident. Along with dance, she was also a cheerleader. She participated most of her sports at Mary E. Brown Community Center. Which included deal and field, hoops, and volleyball. She excelled well in every sport she did, especially the ones she did at Mary E. Brown Community Center. Jackie started track and field when she was nine years old. By twelve, she had jumped almost seventeen f... ...ld record holder for long jump. Then, in 1987, she scored the weeklong legal jump that year by a woman in the United States.However, Jackie ended up retiring from track and field because of her asthma. When s he was blameless with track and field she joined the Richmond Rage a basketball team in the American Basketball League. She also had enough cadence to write and publish an autobiography in 1997 titled A unsanded Kind of Grace which was all about the story of how she became an Olympian.Jackie Joyner is known for her determination, bravery, and of bleed her six Olympic medals but there is more to becoming an frightening athlete than training, you have to be dedicated. She overcame a life of little money and without having much training equipment, to live a life as an Olympian. Its better to look ahead and prepare, than to look back and regret. Jackie Joyner (Source 3)

Ethical and Legal Considerations in Social Work Essay -- Social Work E

Shaniya Robinson arrives at the County Human Services position for her monthly appointment with her social caster. Ms. Robinson is a 25 year honest-to-god African American female who is receiving treatment for schizophrenia from the adult behavioral health services program. During a session the client reports that she is under a great deal of stress because she is having gruelingy adjusting to being a new mother. Her five month old mollycoddle girl Shanice is teething and cries frequently. Ms. Robinson is similarly struggling financially because she is currently unemployed her mental illness makes it difficult to sustain employment long term. And she does not receive support from the boors father on a consistent basis. The combination of these mutual difficulties is weighing heavily on the client who reports an increase in irrefutable and negative symptoms (i.e. auditory hallucinations and social withdrawal). Because the client does not have policy she disclosed to her s ocial worker that she self-medicates using marijuana in an attack to manage symptoms. More noteworthy, the client explains that she uses the same method to soothe the baby by blowing marijuana smoke in the infants face. It is certain that Ms. Robinson divulged such nurture for several reasons, she wants help and she believes that any study she sh atomic number 18s within the context of her sessions are confidential. ConfidentialityThe expectation in the practitioner/client relationship is that any information disclosed will not be shared with others. Confidentiality is emphasized to endure the client with a safe haven in which to share traumatic events or embarrassing personal information about themselves (Krase, 2013). Disclosing this type of erogenous information... ...). Marijuana and Breast Feeding Is it Safe to Smoke Marijuana and draw? Retrieved from http//addictions.about.com/od/legalissues/a/Marijuana-And-Breastfeeding.htm?p=1Krase, K. (2013). Social Workers as Mandated as Reporters Conflicted Over Confidentiality?Part IV. The New Social Worker. Retrieved from http//www.socialworker.com/feature-articles/practice/social-workers-as-mandated-reporters%3A/page-2.htmlLouisiana Childrens Code. (n.d.). Retrieved on March 27, 2014 from http//www.nicholls.edu/frc/louisiana-chidrens-code/National Association of Social Workers (2008). NASW Code of Ethics scat to the Everyday Professional Conduct of Social Workers. Washington, DC NASW.Sheafor, B. & Horejsi, C.J. (2012). Techniques and guidelines for social work practice. (9th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ Pearson Education, Inc.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Deconstruction and Multiplicity of Self through Modern Technology :: Technological Essays

Deconstruction and Multiplicity of Self through red-brick TechnologyThe mesh has allowed a postmodern project of self-importance to persist and serve as the solution to a dilemma that modernism has perpetuated environ self perception. Such a dilemma includes the identity crisis. Having only wholeness self is restricting and tramp be dangerous, especially if the self is viewed as bad by the individual/self or others. It becomes critical, in the modernist view of self, to like integrityself or else unrivalled will have to either self-hate or self-destruct. Self destruction would mean to kill off or decease the self-defining characteristics that one dislikes. My Mother always told me Its never to late to be who you really are. This advice functions to encourage combat against negative self-image that modernism cultivates. For some, this function is like clearing the slate. Starting from scratch will hopefully be refreshing to ones self-esteem and self-value, but start ing all over as the saucily you can be a difficult and shuddery adjustment as well. For the same reasons, labels and stereotypes control and shape ones identity. The postmodern, technological world loosens the powerful grip of modernisms resulting restrictions on selfhood.Modernism promotes an either-or option for self being one thing or another (and, hopefully, that dichotomy is not the dangerous good-bad ultimatum). On the other hand, postmodernism allows for liquid and does not condemn or pollute the entire self with one portion of self-identity. Additionally, the worry slightly a new yous billet in society will never arise as the new you is just another you in a postmodern self concept. No one has one true self nor control over others perceptions of ones selves. Therefore, one must come to terms with the fragmented, multiplicities of their own identity. Their self exists in the here-and-now, and is much less definable in simple categories. plot of land others, then , cannot grasp and categorize your identity, the possibility exists, that neither can the self which is you. This presents a freeing and frustrating capacity for any individual worried about control. The postmodern, technology-age self is not contained. It is a limitless region abounding with environment-sensitive traits. We can imagine such a concept through the unlimited Internetin the vast expanse called cyberspace. Viewing ourselves through, or actually as composed like, a machine unlocks such infinite possibilities in identity.

Violation of Rights in the Film Guilty by Suspicion :: essays research papers

the States is the land of the free. America is the land in which Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech or the right of the people peaceably to assemble. (Amendment I to the US Constitution.) This means that Americans can say whatever they believe, and be part of any(prenominal) club, group, or political affiliation they choose. The Bill of Rights withal declares in the Fifth Amendment that ?No Person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be strip of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. This means that in court, a individual may remain silent, and cannot be forced to incriminate themselves. An American to a fault may not be deprived of their life, freedom, or belongings without a trial. inculpative by Suspicion is about how the violation of these rights affected normal, innocent, Americans. Many, legion(predicate) lives were ruined by the unjust accusations and the insistence on confessing that othe rs were Communists. In Guilty by Suspicion, I really understood how the characters felt. The one standout actor was Patricia Wettig, as Dorothy. She was heartbreaking as the actress who commits suicide after she is accused of being a Communist by her husband, she cannot find work, and her child is taken away from her. Joe lesser was a small but memorable character played by Martin Scorsese. Joe was memorable because his hyper, obnoxious, Chihuahua-like acting style really took away from the solemnity of the expect of the movie. The picture showing was not especially notable, but there were other small effects. The period music was great, with motifs such as Louis Armstrong. The continuing music and film from the classic Gentlemen Prefer Blondes was wonderful. It was ironic that when David id being told to get a lawyer, so he won?

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Nikolai Aleksandrovich Romanov: The Last Tsar of Russia Essay

Nikolai Aleksandrovich Romanov, the last standing Tsar of Russia officially cognize as Tsar Nicholas II, autocrat of Russia. Nicholas II was born on eighteenth May, 1868 in Tsarskoe Selo, Russia. Nicholas II was the eldest son of Alexander III and his Empress Marie Romanova. Nicholas was eldest of six children. He had three younger brothers, Alexander, George, Michael and two younger sisters, Xenia and Olga. Nicholas II dominiond from 1894 until his abdication on 15 March 1917, his reign power saw imperial Russia go from being one of the foremost great powers of the creative activity to an economic and military catastrophe. Tsar Nicholas II influenced and sought change in the historical events of Russo - Jap warfare, Bloody Sunday, October Manifesto, The First Russian Revolution, World state of war One and the abdication of the throne. Thus bringing about change in Russia and the autocratic system of notion that lead to the downfall of the Romanov Dynasty. Nicholas firmly bel ieved in the same traits as his father, Tsar Alexander III. After the sudden remainder of his father in 1894, Nicholas II was crowned Tsar of Russia, and left to rule without any knowledge and training of leadership skills. The state of Russias sparing and military was in the fate of Nicholas II. As he was unprepared for the brand-new and challenging role to govern the extensive Russian empire. Nicholas II complained to his brother-in-law stating that, I am not prepared to be a Tsar. I never wanted to become one. I know nothing of the business of ruling. Nicholas II was different compared to that of the past Tsars, Nicholas II early interests did not flap around political matters. His father, although wanted him to be tough but his spirit was the exact opposite. Soon after the death of his fath... ... factor within it self that contributed to the downfall of the Romanov dynasty.As a result the impact of World War One and tensions that arose in Russia, Tsar Nicholas II was for ced to abdicated by the Duma. As the primary source, At Last Brisbane worker, 22nd March 1971, indicates that the majority of the concourse did not want a Tsar ruling Russia thus the take in for the a revolution. The big hand, in the source represents the size of the people and the racy removable of the Tsar as it burst through chair. By the insurgent revolution the Romanov dynasty has ended due to the execution of the Romanovs. The fall of the Russian pudding stone was a result of a complex web of factors. The ultra conservatism and political inexperience of Tsar Nicholas II greatly contributed to the fall, as did the broad socio-economic changes, modernisation, industrialisation of the period.

Custom Written Term Papers: Othello’s Feminine Roles :: Othello essays

Othellos Feminine Roles The audience finds within the Shakespearean tragic drama Othello several female characters who figure into the plot of the looseness. Their divisions are wide-ranging and their lives end tragically. Alvin Kernans Othello an Introduction explains Desdemonas post as a model of faith and chastity for the protagonist who converts to a belief in her after her death His willingness to speak of what he has done in tell apart to Iagos sullen silence is a willingness to recognize the meaning of Desdemonas faith and chastity, to acknowledge that innocence and love do exist, and that therefore The city can stand, though his life is required to validate the truth and nicety on which it is built. (81) In the volume Shakespeare and Tragedy John Bayley explains the roles of the two main women characters in the play Even the risk of alienating the onlooker from the tragic action produces a corresponding gain that action and behaviour lie in the play perennia lly controversial, and the focus of devolve onual and social cognisance sharp and clear. In a production today, the implications of this are usually to a greater extent interesting than the actual intrigue can be, and a lot of burthen is usually put on Emilias role as a figure of common sense and common humanity, correcting the romantic excesses of the lovers. . . . nevertheless no figure in these three tragedies has such a symbolically positional status. Besides, Emilia, for all her virtues, has a stupidity and lack of imagination comparable to(predicate) in its own way to that of her husband while her views on the sex war, from the feminine angle, are as pungent as his. Certainly the role of women is important, but it is Desdemona alone who, because of her love, can remain unconscious of the tragedy/ comedy element, as she does of the polarity between sex and love. (218) At the outset of the play Iago persuades the rejected suitor of Desdemona, Roderigo, to accompany him to the home of Brabantio, Desdemonas father, in the inwardness of the night. Once there the two awaken the senator with loud shouts about his young womans elopement with Othello. This is the initial reference to the role of women in the play the role of wife. In response to the noise and Iagos vulgar descriptions of Desdemonas inter-group communication with the general, Brabantio arises from bed.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Analysis of Royal Caribbean Internationals Operations in Singapore Ess

1.IntroductionDeep-sea passenger transportation are amongst the most cursorily growing and evolving sectors in the hospitality industry(Wie, 2004, Douglas et al., 2010). As such, there underscores the need for dodging development to ensure the long-term success of squares in this industry. This report would think on Royal Caribbean world(prenominal)s operations in Singapore, and see it based on its external and internal environments, while concluding with a recommendation of strategies that could be adopted as part of the organizations long-term strategic trajectory. Founded in 1968, the firm is part of the Royal Caribbean cruises Ltd. which provides one-stop vacation services that includes hotel, dining and entertainment. Additionally, land tours, stopovers and airport transfer services have also been offered in recent geezerhood to maximize the customer experience(Royal Caribbean International, n.d.). 2.External Analysis2.1 PESTLE Analysis non-homogeneous academics have hig hlighted the critical role that the PESTLE framework plays in aiding organizations to analyze its external environment(Johnson et al., 2012 Senior and Swailes, 2010 Gomez-Mejia and Balkin, 2011). PoliticalOwing to the welcoming attitude well-kept towards foreign firms, first levels of corruption, stable political climate, and good relations with adjoining countries ( commercialiseLine, 2013), there is little political risk faced in Singapore. deliveranceSingapores economy is relatively stable and growing, albeit being slightly affected by global economic woes. As a whole, there are low levels of unemployment and GDP per capita is high(Worldbank,2013), hence implying more disposable income that nationals have to spend. Nonetheless, spurred on by soaring ... ... Recruiting in the Cruise Industry, Journal of Human Resources in cordial reception and Tourism, 9 17-32Gibson, P. and Papathanassis, A. (2010) The Cruise Industry appear Issues, Problems and Solutions Review of the 2nd International Cruise Conference, Plymouth, UK, 18-20 February 2010, International Journal of Tourism Research, 12 405-7Thor, J.C. and Barclay, L.A. (2012) Art Auctions on the high gear Seas, Journal of Critical Incidents, 5 59-61Wei, Y., Samiee, S., and Lee, R.P. (2014) The Influence of Organic Organizational Cultures, Market Responsiveness, and Product Strategy on Firm Performance in An Emerging Market, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 42 49-70Wilson, R.H. (2012) The Legal Strategy of the Cruise Industry An Effective Use of Terms and Conditions to Manage Disputes, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 53(4) 347-56

Fusion is The Future of Energy Essay -- Clean Power Alternative Energy

confederacy is The Future of aughtAbstractFusion nada is the same nil that provides the power for that of our sun and other stars. An example of Fusion energy is when ii separate hydrogen atoms combine to form one helium atom. In this process some of the mass of the hydrogen is converted into energy. This energy is truly powerful and is considered inexhaustible by the scientific community. But the ability to conquer this energy seems to be out of our reach. The heating, compressing, and confining of hydrogen plasmas is really challenging. (NIF, 2007) flush so, many facilities such as NIF still try to learn the secrets of Fusion. enteringThe mood of Fusion energy came from a man who lived in the twentieth century. He thought that mass could in fact, be converted into bare energy. His name was Albert Einstein, one of the greatest minds of his time. As the years went by, physicists came to know of devil ways to convert mass into energy. The two methods are known as fission and fusion. Fission is where neutrons are induced in a roll of fissions to create more fission and so on. Fusion energy is energy produced nuclear fusion reactions. When two atomic nuclei fuse to create a bigger and heavier nucleus, extra mass in converted into energy. This energy is very furious and heats plasma up to ten times that of the sun. The trick is to animation the energy bottled up and going, scientists predictions are all over the tramp and we stillFuture of verve 3have no idea what to do with the heat and how to harness it. To create a power lay out we would have to complete 3 objectives equilibrium, stability and transport. The plasma has to be in a constant state of equilibrium and stability to stay hot and we have to make sure the particles a... ...he NIF project going every year. overdue to the unknown time schedule and the grand costs, it seems nobody truly knows when our demesne will become fully dependent, but Fusion energy is on top of everyones minds a s our future.References1.Thinkquest, (2006). Fusion Future Energy. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from Energy Matters Web site http//library.thinkquest.org/20331/types/fusion/advant.html2. Heeter, Robert (2000). How Fusion Reactions Work. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from The Nuclear natural philosophy of Fusion Web site http//fusedweb.pppl.gov/CPEP/Chart_Pages/3.HowFusionWorks.html3. ITER, Project (2005). The ITER Project. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from Fusion Energy Web site http//www.iter.org/4. DeMeo, Anthony (2004). Fusion Energy. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from Princeton Plasma Physics research lab Web site http//www.pppl.gov/fusion_basics/pages/fusion_energy.html

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Social Isolation In The Interesting Narrative Of The Life Of Olaudah Eq

Olaudah Equiano in his Interesting Narrative is taken from his African home and impel into a Western world completely foreign to him. Equiano is a hard worker for a total of ten eld and endeavors to take on certain traits and customs of Western thinking. He takes great pains to improve himself, control religion, and adopt Western mercantilism. However, Equiano holds on to a great deal of his African heritage. Throughout the narrative, the author keeps his African innocence and purity of intent devil qualities he finds sorely lacking in the Europeans. This compromise leaves him in a volatile philia ground amidst his adapted West and his autochthonal Africa. Olaudah Equiano takes on Western ideals while keeping several of his African determine this makes him a man associated with two cultures but a member of neither. Olaudah Equiano during his ample journey is exposed to Western ideas and customs. Although he is initially frightened by them, writing and I was n ow persuaded that I had gotten into a world of big(p) spirits, and that they were go to kill me (755), he eventually begins to see Europeans as work force superior to us (762). In this change of perceptive Equiano begins to endeavor to simulate his more pale counterparts. To further this cause, he begins to improve himself through education. He embarks on a quest to read and write having already part learned his adopted tongue some two to three years after he arrives in England. He is put into school by Miss Guerins while his masters ship is in port and while in her service Equiano is taught Western Christianity and baptized. He thus begins to take on the European religious character as well as the new nirvana ideal of self-improvement. During Equianos service... ...other leaving him somewhere betwixt both.Olaudah Equianos Interesting Narrative provides perspicacity into cultural assimilation and the difficulties such assimilation. The writer embraces several Western tr aits and ideals moreover guards his African virtues jealously. In doing so however, he finds himself somewhere in between a full European and a displaced African. This problem of cultural individuality Equiano struggled with is still present in modern American society. The modern twenty-four hours African-American appears to also be in the process of deciding the between two competing cultures and often being left somewhere in middle becoming a victim of cultural identity just corresponding Olaudah Equiano some 250 years ago.Works CitedOlaudah, Equiano. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Yassa, Written by Himself. New York St. Martins Press, 1995.

Essay --

Kentucky v. King, 563 U.S. _____ (2011)FactsA number of police officers set up a sting in which there were to be buy of cleft cocaine outside an flatbed complex in Lexington, Kentucky. Undercover incumbent Gibbons watched the deal from an undercover car in a parking stria non far the from the sale area. After the deal took place, Office Gibbons piano tunered some(prenominal) other police officers. He instructed them to close in on the suspects. He advised the officers to hurry and get there because the suspect was making his flair towards the breezeway of an apartment building. Officers arrived at the parking lot, leaving their vehicles and run to the breezeway. As presently as they enter the breezeway they check a door shut and merchant ship detect a strong odor of marijuana. At the end of the breezeway are two apartments, one located on the left, and one located on the right. The officers were unsure of which apartment the suspect entered. Officer Gibbons advis ed the officers over the radio that the suspect had ran into the apartment on the right, but the officers didnt hear this communicate since they were not at their vehicles. Due to the smell of marijuana coming from the apartment on the left, the officers approach that apartment. The officers banged on the door of the apartment and announced themselves. They could hear people moving inner(a), and it sounded like things were being moved around inside the apartment. Based on what they heard, officers assumed that drug related evidence was in the process of being destroyed. The officers then announced that they were about to enter the apartment. mavin of the policemen kicked the door in, and the other officers entered the apartment. Officers located three individuals inside the apartment Hollis ... ... hike up held that this conduct was entirely consistent with the quarter Amendment, and it was evident that there was no other evidence that might show that the officers eithe r enraptured the Fourth Amendment or threatened to do so.The motor lodge concluded that Officer Cobbs statements were made after the exigency arose, therefore it cannot have created the exigency.ConclusionThe Court concluded its holding by finding that the exigent circumstances territorial dominion applies in certain cases where the police officer or officers do not create the exigency, but rather, by engaging in or imperil to engage in conduct that violates the Fourth Amendment. The Court further level-headed that because the officers in this case did not violate or threaten to violate the suspects Fourth Amendment rights prior to the exigency, the exigency justified the warrantless search of the apartment.

Saturday, March 23, 2019

underground railroad Essay -- essays research papers

IntroductionThe resistance Railroad, the pathway to freedom which take a numerous amount of African Americans to pass beginning as early as the 1700s, it still remains a mystery to many a(prenominal) as to on the nose when it plumped and why. (Carrasco). The Underground Railroad is known by many as one of the earliest parts of the antistriverry drive. Although the system was neither resistance nor a railroad, it was a huge success that will never be forgotten.I chose to research the Underground Railroad because I engage comprehend so much nearly it, but my knowledge about the adequate to(p) was very minimal. I found the Underground Railroad very arouse at first. The much I learned about this movement, the more provoke I became.When I chose this topic, I was interested in learning about the entire movement in general. I treasured to learn more about the locations of the slave hideouts, and who was involved. I wanted to find what led to the start of this movement, and wh en it started. I was successful with my research, and learned about all the things I was hoping to find. The Underground Railroad was a remarkable pathway to freedom which freed many from slave states and left behind an incredible story to show the importance of this typeface to history today.BodyFirst of all, the impact of the Underground Railroad has helped stratum Americas legacy like no other resultant in our nations former times. (Dewine par. 4). No one knows exactly when it started, but there were definitely advanced cases of help given to runaways as early as the 1700s. (Carrasco). Slaves had more than one reason for turning to freedom. more or less were scared of being parted from friends and family, but some just wanted to live a normal life. Some slaves had it so bad that they had to escape just to stay alive. There are several different myths as to where this legendary path to freedom got its name. Some say the name in all probability originated from the popularity o f the new railroads. (Carrasco). Other people say it was called the Underground Railroad because of the swift, cryptic way in which slaves escaped. (Donald par. 1). The Underground Railroad began in the 1700s infra Quaker sup... ...pation Proclamation by Lincoln, ending all slavery in our now free country, forever. (Buckmaster 171).ConclusionWhile doing this research paper, I have learned so much more schooling about this movement than I ever expected to learn. Before I had researched this project, I anticipate the Underground Railroad was an actual railroad. I never realized how drastic this movement was, nor the amount of courage the men and woman had to have to enroll in the act. I had never realized how callous the slave owners acted toward their slaves, or how emotionally strong the slaves had to be to put up with the abuse. I was passing fortunate while writing this paper. I found all the information I had been looking for, although it wasnt quite what I had expected. T he outcome of this occurrence was so much worse than I had ever imagined it to be. I receive that the Underground Railroad was an incredible movement and if this act had never started, I believe that the many escapees would not have made it out alive.

Beyond the Disability Essay -- Interview Essay

Born in Northern Ireland, Eamonn McGirr began his career not as the lively, captivating performer he is now known as, but as a mathematics professor. I had the opportunity to meet and interview Mr. McGirr plot of ground working for the school newspaper. After interviewing Mr. McGirr it is easy to envision him amongst a classroom of young students. Not only is he articulate and engaging, but steady more striking is the overwhelming sincerity and compassion he radiated passim our conversation. Mr. McGirr has been an active member of the disabled community for some time now. His briny motivation to become an active participant has been his daughter Mareena. Mareena has cerebral paralysis and Mr. McGirr has worked tirelessly to raise support for individuals living with C.P., as well as other disabilities. It comes with unfortunate irony that he, a bastion of strength for the disabled community, has recently suffered his own physical trauma. It was just over a grade ago that Mr. McGirr suffered a spinal injury that has left him in a wheelchair, as well as severely limiting the movement in his hands. During his six months in the hospital Mr. McGirr felt periods of great discouragement. He feared that his sinless life would need reconstruction. There were even moments when the doctors had indicated that there was no commit that he would ever perform again. However, with the support of Mareena and his wife Mary, Mr. McGirr found expect when things seemed hopeless. After receiving a deluge of inspirational letters ranging from Governor Pataki to other individuals suffering their own personal disabilities, Mr. McGirr decided it was time to return scale and begin his life again. His stories were not sugar-coated... ...e sums of m peerlessy, every little bit helps. In spreading the word, we fuck get many small donations that together can make a real difference in the life of one individual. Prior to our interview, I had only known Eamonn McGirr as the pe rformer who render tirelessly for 11 days and 20 minutes, breaking his fifth Guinness humanness Record - all in the name of the Center for the Disabled. However, after our interview, I had respect and admiration for a man who not only disposed himself to a cause, but has done so with a passion and hullabaloo scarcely found. Eamonn McGirr has given himself fully to the disability movement and now, himself living with a disability, continues to work at full throttle. Mr. McGirr stands out as a diametric and significant figure in the disability movement, and I believe he has set a precedent that will inspire and motivate generations to come.

Friday, March 22, 2019

Controlling Chemical and Biological Weapons Essay -- Exploratory Essay

Controlling chemical substance and Biological Weapons History and IntroductionChemical and biologic weapons (CBWs) contract been used over the ages as an effective marrow of contendfare. The earlier incident of biological weapons (BWs) occurred in the third century B.C., when the Punic leader Hannibal filled up pots with venomous snakes and threw them onto enemy ships. (Cirincione, 48) Since then, biological weapons sacrifice been used very infrequently. This is mainly due to enormous cost inevitable to create and handle BWs (many of the groups who score attempted to create such weapons have ended up infecting themselves more often then their intended targets). (Henderson, 25) In contrast, chemical weapons have been used fairly frequently in warfare. The earliest example of chemical weapons comes from the Trojan struggle when the Greeks mixed sulfur and dislodge resin to engulf enemy troops in toxic fumes. (Cirincione, 51) to a greater extent recently the Germans and the Al lies of World War I utilized the capabilities of centilitre liquid in order to asphyxiate their enemies.(Slotten, 478) These weapons are thought to have been employed more frequently because they are more humane than biological or traditional weapons of war. Explains Capt. Alfred T Mahan of the U.S. Army after the Germans deployed chlorine gas during WWI, the use of gases might make war more humane, instead of demise an agonizing death from horrible wounds, soldiers might be incapacitated by gas and then be humanely carted off to prisoner of war camps where they could quickly recuperate with no ill effects.(Slotten, 478) Though Mahans rationale may be a little nave, one can actualise why after the war there were many advocates for chemical weapons. Since their covering in WWI by both the... ... the intelligence of the authorities in genuine nations, who in turn can put political pressure on the nations building CBWs. Intelligence is the key. The more we know, the easier it i s to stop terrorist groups and nations from using these weapons of mass destruction.SourcesCirincione, Joseph, with Jon B. Wolfsthal and Miriam Rajkumar, dementedly Arsenals Tracking Weapons of Mass Destruction. The Brooking Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 2002.Henderson, Harry, Global Terrorism The Complete interview Guide. Checkmark Boook, 2001. New York, N.Y.Moodie, Michael.Agents of Death. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, Spring 2000. v15 i1 p6.Slotten, Hugh R. gentle Chemistry or Scientific Barbarism? American Responses to World War I Poison Gas, 1915-1930. The Journal of American History, Volume 77, Issue 2. September, 1990. p. 476-498.